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"All You Can Eat" Ontology-Building: Feeding Wikipedia to Cyc +In order to achieve genuine web intelligence, building some kind of large general machine-readable conceptual scheme (i.e. ontology) seems inescapable. Yet the past 20 years have shown that manual ontology-building is not practicable. The recent explosion of free user-supplied knowledge on the Web has led to great strides in automatic ontology-building, but quality-control is still a major issue. Ideally one should automatically build onto an already intelligent base. We suggest that the long-running Cyc project is able to assist here. We describe methods used to add 35K new concepts mined from Wikipedia to collections in ResearchCyc entirely automatically. Evaluation with 22 human subjects shows high precision both for the new concepts’ categorization, and their assignment as individuals or collections. Most importantly we show how Cyc itself can be leveraged for ontological quality control by ‘feeding’ it assertions one by one, enabling it to reject those that contradict its other knowledge.
"All you can eat" ontology-building: Feeding wikipedia to Cyc +In order to achieve genuine web intelligence, building some kind of large general machine-readable conceptual scheme (i.e. ontology) seems inescapable. Yet the past 20 years have shown that manual ontology-building is not practicable. The recent explosion of free user-supplied knowledge on the Web has led to great strides in automatic ontology-building, but quality-control is still a major issue. Ideally one should automatically build onto an already intelligent base. We suggest that the long-running Cyc project is able to assist here. We describe methods used to add 35K new concepts mined from Wikipedia to collections in ResearchCyc entirely automatically. Evaluation with 22 human subjects shows high precision both for the new concepts' categorization, and their assignment as individuals or collections. Most importantly we show how Cyc itself can be leveraged for ontological quality control by 'feeding' it assertions one by one, enabling it to reject those that contradict its other knowledge.
"Askwiki": Shallow semantic processing to query Wikipedia +We describe an application to query Wikipedia with a voice interface on a mobile device, i.e. smart phone or tablet computer. The aim was to develop a so-called App that installs easily on an android phone and does not need large vocabularies. It can be used to either answer questions directly, if the information is contained in a table or matches some keyword syntax (like birth place), or get access to an article's sub chapter. An evaluation based on 25 test users showed the feasibility of the approach.
"Be Nice": Wikipedia norms for supportive communication +Wikipedia is acknowledged to have been home to some bitter disputes. Indeed, conflict at Wikipedia is said to be "as addictive as cocaine". Yet, such observations are not cynical commentary but motivation for a collection of social norms. These norms speak to the intentional stance and communicative behaviors Wikipedians should adopt when interacting with one another. In the following pages, I provide a survey of these norms on the English Wikipedia and argue that they can be characterized as supportive based on Jack Gibb's classic communication article "Defensive Communication".
"Blogs" and "Wikis" are valuable software tools for communication within research groups +Appropriate software tools may improve communication and ease access to knowledge for research groups. A weblog is a website which contains periodic, chronologically ordered posts on a common webpage, whereas a wiki is hypertext-based collaborative software that enables documents to be authored collectively using a web browser. Although not primarily intended for use as an intranet-based collaborative knowledge warehouse, both blogs and wikis have the potential to offer all the features of complex and expensive IT solutions. These tools enable the team members to share knowledge simply and quickly-the collective knowledge base of the group can be efficiently managed and navigated.
"But where's the spec?" - Learning through collaborative development & discovery +In academia, there has always been a divide between what is taught and what is done in industry. The question that must be asked is how the higher learning institutes can rise to meet this challenge and better prepare its students for the demands that lie ahead. This paper investigates issues regarding evolving project requirements and communication and collaboration among diverse team members, exploring how storyboarding tools and collaborative Wikis can help to mitigate these issues. Copyright 2005 ACM.
"Edit this page": The socio-technological infrastructure of a wikipedia article +Networked environments, such as wikis, are commonly used to support work, including the collaborative authoring of information and "fact-building. " In networked environments, the activity of fact-building is mediated not only by the technological features of the interface, but also by the social conventions of the community it supports. This paper examines the social and technological features of a Wikipedia article in order to understand how these features help mediate the activity of factbuilding and highlights the need for communication designers to consider the goals and needs of the communities for which they design.
"Got You!": Automatic vandalism detection in wikipedia with web-based shallow syntactic-semantic modeling +Discriminating vandalism edits from non-vandalism edits in Wikipedia is a challenging task, as ill-intentioned edits can include a variety of content and be expressed in many different forms and styles. Previous studies are limited to rule-based methods and learning based on lexical features, lacking in linguistic analysis. In this paper, we propose a novel Web-based shallow syntacticsemantic modeling method, which utilizes Web search results as resource and trains topic-specific n-tag and syntactic n-gram language models to detect vandalism. By combining basic task-specific and lexical features, we have achieved high F-measures using logistic boosting and logistic model trees classifiers, surpassing the results reported by major Wikipedia vandalism detection systems.
"How should I go from-to-without getting killed?" Motivation and benefits in open collaboration +Many people rely on open collaboration projects to run their computer (Linux), browse the web (Mozilla Firefox), and get information (Wikipedia). While these projects are successful, many such efforts suffer from lack of participation. Understanding what motivates users to participate and the benefits they perceive from their participation can help address this problem. We examined these issues through a survey of contributors and information consumers in the Cyclopath geographic wiki. We analyzed subject responses to identify a number of key motives and perceived benefits. Based on these results, we articulate several general techniques to encourage more and new forms of participation in open collaboration communities. Some of these techniques have the potential to engage information consumers more deeply and productively in the life of open collaboration communities.
"Language Is the Skin of My Thought": Integrating Wikipedia and AI to Support a Guillotine Player +This paper describes OTTHO (On the Tip of my THOught), a system designed for solving a language game, called Guillotine, which demands knowledge covering a broad range of topics, such as movies, politics, literature, history, proverbs, and popular culture. The rule of the game is simple: the player observes five words, generally unrelated to each other, and in one minute she has to provide a sixth word, semantically connected to the others. The system exploits several knowledge sources, such as a dictionary, a set of proverbs, and Wikipedia to realize a knowledge infusion process. The paper describes the process of modeling these sources and the reasoning mechanism to find the solution of the game. The main motivation for designing an artificial player for Guillotine is the challenge of providing the machine with the cultural and linguistic background knowledge which makes it similar to a human being, with the ability of interpreting natural language documents and reasoning on their content. Experiments carried out showed promising results. Our feeling is that the presented approach has a great potential for other more practical applications besides solving a language game.
"Lexicon of Love": Genre Description of Popular Music Is Not as Simple as ABC +In 2007, the University of Arkansas Libraries received a large donation of 5,295 popular music recordings. This gift nearly doubled the existing CD holdings and greatly altered the collection's emphasis. The present authors sought to enhance retrieval in the local catalog, concentrating particularly on subject access. To this end, they analyzed popular music genre terminology used by three well-known online resources: allmusic.com, Wikipedia, and The Encyclopedia of Popular Music. This article reports their findings about the genres that each assigned to the specific artists in the collection and whether the genres were applied consistently among the three resources.
"More like these": Growing entity classes from seeds +We present a corpus-based approach to the class expansion task. For a given set of seed entities we use co-occurrence statistics taken from a text collection to define a membership function that is used to rank candidate entities for inclusion in the set. We describe an evaluation framework that uses data from Wikipedia. The performance of our class extension method improves as the size of the text collection increases. Copyright 2007 ACM.
"Post it notes": Students' perceptions on assessment and reflective learning in the foreign language learning process using wikis +This paper describes the experience of a qualitative case study in which a WIKI was implemented as a strategy for independent and interactive learning/practice of the receptive foreign language skills of reading and listening. The main objective was to make an in-depth exploration of students' perceptions and responses to the implementation paying particular attention to the influence that a small percentage of the overall grade of the course could have had in the students' active, passive, or disengaged response to the exercise. The study observed and analyzed the voices of a group of Level 11 Spanish students of the Spanish Degree Program at the University of the West Indies, St. Augustine Campus during the first semester of the academic year 2009-2010. This paper serves as a mode of reflection of the benefits and challenges that technology in the form of WEB 2.0 carries in the learning process of a foreign language, in this case Spanish, analyzing motivation and students' dis/engagement with their own learning process at higher education.
"The sum of all human knowledge": A systematic review of scholarly research on the content of Wikipedia +Wikipedia may be the best-developed attempt thus far to gather all human knowledge in one place. Its accomplishments in this regard have made it a point of inquiry for researchers from different fields of knowledge. A decade of research has thrown light on many aspects of the Wikipedia community, its processes, and its content. However, due to the variety of fields inquiring about Wikipedia and the limited synthesis of the extensive research, there is little consensus on many aspects of Wikipedia's content as an encyclopedic collection of human knowledge. This study addresses the issue by systematically reviewing 110 peer-reviewed publications on Wikipedia content, summarizing the current findings, and highlighting the major research trends. Two major streams of research are identified: the quality of Wikipedia content (including comprehensiveness, currency, readability, and reliability) and the size of Wikipedia. Moreover, we present the key research trends in terms of the domains of inquiry, research design, data source, and data gathering methods. This review synthesizes scholarly understanding of Wikipedia content and paves the way for future studies.
"What I know is...": Establishing credibility on wikipedia talk pages +This poster presents a new theoretical framework and research method for studying the relationship between specific types of authority claims and the attempts of contributors to establish credibility in online, collaborative environments. We describe a content analysis method for coding authority claims based on linguistic and rhetorical cues in naturally occurring, text-based discourse. We present results from a preliminary analysis of a sample of Wikipedia talk page discussions focused on recent news events. This method provides a novel framework for capturing and understanding these persuasion-oriented behaviors, and shows potential as a tool for online communication research, including automated text analysis using trained natural language processing systems.
"Who is this" quiz dialogue system and users' evaluation +In order to design a dialogue system that users enjoy and want to be near for a long time, it is important to know the effect of the system's action on users. This paper describes "Who is this" quiz dialogue system and its users' evaluation. Its quiz-style information presentation has been found effective for educational tasks. In our ongoing effort to make it closer to a conversational partner, we implemented the system as a stuffed-toy (or CG equivalent). Quizzes are automatically generated from Wikipedia articles, rather than from hand-crafted sets of biographical facts. Network mining is utilized to prepare adaptive system responses. Experiments showed the effectiveness of person network and the relationship of user attribute and interest level.
"Wikipedias" y biblioteca pública. Participar en la información local digital a través de "localpedias" +This paper justifies participation by public libraries in designing and publishing in “localpedias” as a way to promote collaboration in the creation of local content. For this purpose, the “localpedia” concept is explained and some of the main Spanish localpedia experiences described. Finally, some difficulties in consolidating this way of creating and sharing local knowledge are discussed.

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'Wikivism': From communicative capitalism to organized networks +This article examines two different approaches to the political significance of networked technologies like the Internet. It considers Richard Kahn and Douglas Kellner’s “critical/reconstructive” methodology and Jodi Dean’s account of “communicative capitalism,” and shows how the respective approaches are insufficient to elucidate the genuinely radical possibilities we may harbor for the Internet. The case study of “hypertextual databases” or “wikis” is used, both to contextualize the limitations of the above arguments and to present a more radical overture for thinking about network politics. I also utilize Ned Rossiter’s concept of “organized networks” and show how these social-technical forms can provide a more radical proposition for thinking about the political possibilities of wikis. I proceed to translate wikis as specific kinds of organized networks that take us beyond a purely perfunctory language – whether as “information-rich data banks” or else animating the “fantasy of abundance” – and allow us to see them in a decidedly “political” way, as necessarily “incomplete” and thus eminently “rewritable” formations. This essay then concludes by examining the wider implications this “political” reading has for the way in which we understand the multiple situations of nascent forms of democratic politics.

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(Re)triggering Backlash: Responses to news about Wikipedia's gender gap +Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia that anyone can edit, has been enormously successful. But while it is read nearly equally by women and men, women are only 8.5 to 12.6% of those who edit or write Wikipedia articles. We analyzed coverage of Wikipedia's gender gap by 42 U.S. news organizations and blogs as well as 1,336 comments posted online by readers. We also interviewed Wikimedia Foundation executive director Sue Gardner. Commentators questioned Wikipedia's epistemology and culture and associated the gap with societal issues and/or (perceived) gender differences regarding time management, self-confidence, and expertise, as well as personality and interests. Yet, many commentators denied the gap was a problem; they blamed women for not joining, suggested it was women's choice, or mocked girly interests. The belittling of the disparity as feminist ideology arguably betrays an antifeminist backlash. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.com/journalsPermissions.nav.
(Wiki + ResTechs) = (Fresh documentation + Organic knowledge management + Training materials + Good, cheap technical writers) +Most Information Technology Departments in academia have their historical roots in a culture best described by words such as "geeks," "beta-testers," "troubleshooters," "debuggers," "early adopters," and so on. This culture was partly created by the fact that the mission of academia is indeed to keep looking forward to new developments and cutting-edge technologies. It is the role of industry to adopt the outcome of academia's frenetic efforts to move forward and to then produce commodity-like products. At the same time, in most academic institutions, Information Technology Departments have also evolved into providers of services that use mature but still evolving technology. The consumers (customers) have come to treat these technologies as commodity products or utilities, and they expect to be able to easily learn how to use them, and to be able to easily figure out what are the services offered and how they can be configured. In such an environment, "deployment cycles" and "personnel training" are often seen as a complete waste of time by the academics, as they themselves are pushing for the next generation of technology to be adopted by IT as fast as possible. For these reasons, the creation of detailed documentation by technical writers is usually not deemed worth funding, and with the advent of internet searches and FAQ blogging is seen often as completely unnecessary. This is a true statement for many areas of technology, where there exists ambient literature and FAQs (such as any MS Office product, for example). It is disastrous for customer satisfaction though, if it is applied on issues of configuration that are specific to the institution. Copyright 2008 ACM.

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0-Step K-means for clustering Wikipedia search results +This article describes an improvement for K-means algorithm and its application in the form of a system that clusters search results retrieved from Wikipedia. The proposed algorithm eliminates K-means disadvantages and allows one to create a cluster hierarchy. The main contributions of this paper include the following: (1) The concept of an improved K-means algorithm and its application for hierarchical clustering. (2) Description of the WikiClusterSearch system that employs the proposed algorithm to organize Wikipedia search results into clusters.

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13th international workshop on the web and databases - WebDB 2010 +WebDB 2010, the 13th International Workshop on the Web and Databases, took place on June 6, 2010. Christian Bizer, cofounder of the DBpedia project, compared the Linked Data movement, which stems from the Semantic Web research area, with research in the field of Dataspaces. The research session entitled Linked data and Wikipedia featured papers entitled 'An agglomerative query model for discovery in linked data: semantics and approach' and 'XML-based RDF data management for efficient query processing'. The other sessions of the workshop included papers entitled 'Find your advisor: robust knowledge gathering from the Web', 'Redundancy-driven web data extraction and integration', and 'Using latent-structure to detect objects on the Web'. Topics such as 'Manimal: relational optimization for data-intensive programs' and 'Learning topical transition probabilities in click through data with regression models' were also discussed.

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2 nd international workshop on intelligent user interfaces for developing regions: IUI4DR +Information Technology (IT) has had significant impact on the society and has touched all aspects of our lives. Up and until now computers and expensive devices have fueled this growth. It has resulted in several benefits to the society. The challenge now is to take this success of IT to its next level where IT services can be accessed by the users in developing regions. The focus of the workshop in 2011 is to identify the alternative sources of intelligence and use them to ease the interaction process with information technology. We would like to explore the different modalities, their usage by the community, the intelligence that can be derived by the usage, and finally the design implications on the user interface. We would also like to explore ways in which people in developing regions would react to collaborative technologies and/or use collaborative interfaces that require community support to build knowledge bases (example Wikipedia) or to enable effective navigation of content and access to services.
2009 5th International Conference on Collaborative Computing: Networking, Applications and Worksharing, CollaborateCom 2009 +The proceedings contain 68 papers. The topics discussed include: multi-user multi-account interaction in groupware supporting single-display collaboration; supporting collaborative work through flexible process execution; dynamic data services: data access for collaborative networks in a multi-agent systems architecture; integrating external user profiles in collaboration applications; a collaborative framework for enforcing server commitments, and for regulating server interactive behavior in SOA-based systems; CASTLE: a social framework for collaborative anti-phishing databases; VisGBT: visually analyzing evolving datasets for adaptive learning; an IT appliance for remote collaborative review of mechanisms of injury to children in motor vehicle crashes; user contribution and trust in Wikipedia; and a new perspective on experimental analysis of N-tier systems: evaluating database scalability, multi-bottlenecks, and economical operation.
2010 3rd International Workshop on Managing Requirements Knowledge, MaRK'10: Foreword +The third international workshop on managing requirements knowledge, MaRK'10, focuses on potentials and benefits of lightweight knowledge management approaches, such as ontologies, semantic Wikis and rationale management techniques, applied to requirements engineering. Novel ideas, emerging methodologies, frameworks and tools as well as industrial experiences for capturing, representing, sharing and reusing tacit knowledge in requirements engineering processes are discussed. Furthermore, the workshop will provide an interactive exchange platform between the knowledge management community, requirements engineering community and industrial practitioners.
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