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Title Author(s) Published in Language DateThis property is a special property in this wiki. Abstract R C
Open collaboration for innovation: Principles and performance Levine S.S.
Prietula M.J.
Organization Science English 2014 The principles of open collaboration for innovation (and production), once distinctive to open source software, are now found in many other ventures. Some of these ventures are Internet based: for example, Wikipedia and online communities. Others are off-line: they are found in medicine, science, and everyday life. Such ventures have been affecting traditional firms and may represent a new organizational form. Despite the impact of such ventures, their operating principles and performance are not well understood. Here we define open collaboration (OC), the underlying set of principles, and propose that it is a robust engine for innovation and production. First, we review multiple OC ventures and identify four defining principles. In all instances, participants create goods and services of economic value, they exchange and reuse each other's work, they labor purposefully with just loose coordination, and they permit anyone to contribute and consume. These principles distinguish OC from other organizational forms, such as firms or cooperatives. Next, we turn to performance. To understand the performance of OC, we develop a computational model, combining innovation theory with recent evidence on human cooperation. We identify and investigate three elements that affect performance: the cooperativeness of participants, the diversity of their needs, and the degree to which the goods are rival (subtractable). Through computational experiments, we find that OC performs well even in seemingly harsh environments: when cooperators are a minority, free riders are present, diversity is lacking, or goods are rival. We conclude that OC is viable and likely to expand into new domains. The findings also inform the discussion on new organizational forms, collaborative and communal. 0 0
Adding semantics to microblog posts Edgar Meij
Weerkamp W.
Maarten de Rijke
WSDM 2012 - Proceedings of the 5th ACM International Conference on Web Search and Data Mining English 2012 Microblogs have become an important source of information for the purpose of marketing, intelligence, and reputation management. Streams of microblogs are of great value because of their direct and real-time nature. Determining what an individual microblog post is about, however, can be non-trivial because of creative language usage, the highly contextualized and informal nature of microblog posts, and the limited length of this form of communication. We propose a solution to the problem of determining what a microblog post is about through semantic linking: we add semantics to posts by automatically identifying concepts that are semantically related to it and generating links to the corresponding Wikipedia articles. The identified concepts can subsequently be used for, e.g., social media mining, thereby reducing the need for manual inspection and selection. Using a purpose-built test collection of tweets, we show that recently proposed approaches for semantic linking do not perform well, mainly due to the idiosyncratic nature of microblog posts. We propose a novel method based on machine learning with a set of innovative features and show that it is able to achieve significant improvements over all other methods, especially in terms of precision. Copyright 2012 ACM. 0 0
Squeezing out the cloud via profit-maximizing resource allocation policies Mazzucco M.
Vasar M.
Dumas M.
Proceedings of the 2012 IEEE 20th International Symposium on Modeling, Analysis and Simulation of Computer and Telecommunication Systems, MASCOTS 2012 English 2012 We study the problem of maximizing the average hourly profit earned by a Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) provider who runs a software service on behalf of a customer using servers rented from an Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) provider. The SaaS provider earns a fee per successful transaction and incurs costs pro-portional to the number of server-hours it uses. A number of resource allocation policies for this or similar problems have been proposed in previous work. However, to the best of our knowledge, these policies have not been comparatively evaluated in a cloud environment. This paper reports on an empirical evaluation of three policies using a replica of Wikipedia deployed on the Amazon EC2 cloud. Experimental results show that a policy based on a solution to an optimization problem derived from the SaaS provider's utility function outperforms well-known heuristics that have been proposed for similar problems. It is also shown that all three policies outperform a "reactive" allocation approach based on Amazon's auto-scaling feature. 0 0
Processing Wikipedia dumps: A case-study comparing the XGrid and mapreduce approaches Thiebaut D.
Yanyan Li
Jaunzeikare D.
Cheng A.
Recto E.R.
Riggs G.
Zhao X.T.
Stolpestad T.
Nguyen C.L.T.
CLOSER 2011 - Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Cloud Computing and Services Science English 2011 We present a simple comparison of the performance of three different cluster platforms: Apple's XGrid, and Hadoop the open-source version of Google's MapReduce as the total execution time taken by each to parse a 27-GByte XML dump of the English Wikipedia. A local hadoop cluster of Linux workstation, as well as an Elastic MapReduce cluster rented from Amazon are used. We show that for this specific workload, XGrid yields the fastest execution time, with the local Hadoop cluster a close second. The overhead of fetching data from Amazon's Simple Storage System (S3), along with the inability to skip the reduce, sort, and merge phases on Amazon penalizes this platform targeted for much larger data sets. 0 0
TAGME: On-the-fly annotation of short text fragments (by Wikipedia entities) Paolo Ferragina
Ugo Scaiella
International Conference on Information and Knowledge Management, Proceedings English 2010 We designed and implemented TAGME, a system that is able to efficiently and judiciously augment a plain-text with pertinent hyperlinks to Wikipedia pages. The specialty of TAGME with respect to known systems [5, 8] is that it may annotate texts which are short and poorly composed, such as snippets of search-engine results, tweets, news, etc. This annotation is extremely informative, so any task that is currently addressed using the bag-of-words paradigm could benefit from using this annotation to draw upon (the millions of) Wikipedia pages and their inter-relations. 0 0
The effects of diversity on group productivity and member withdrawal in online volunteer groups Jilin Chen
Yingjie Ren
John Riedl
Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - Proceedings English 2010 The "wisdom of crowds" argument emphasizes the importance of diversity in online collaborations, such as open source projects and Wikipedia. However, decades of research on diversity in offline work groups have painted an inconclusive picture. On the one hand, the broader range of insights from a diverse group can lead to improved outcomes. On the other hand, individual differences can lead to conflict and diminished performance. In this paper, we examine the effects of group diversity on the amount of work accomplished and on member withdrawal behaviors in the context of WikiProjects. We find that increased diversity in experience with Wikipedia increases group productivity and decreases member withdrawal - up to a point. Beyond that point, group productivity remains high, but members are more likely to withdraw. Strikingly, no such diminishing returns were observed for differences in member interest, which increases productivity and decreases member withdrawal in a linear fashion. Our results suggest that the low visibility of individual differences in online groups may allow them to harvest more of the benefits of diversity while bearing less of the cost. We discuss how our findings can inform further research of online collaboration. 0 0
Analysis of tag-based recommendation performance for a semantic wiki Durao F.
Peter Dolog
CEUR Workshop Proceedings English 2009 Recommendations play a very important role for revealing related topics addressed in the wikis beyond the currently viewed page. In this paper, we extend KiWi, a semantic wiki with three different recommendation approaches. The first approach is implemented as a traditional tag-based retrieval, the second takes into account external factors such as tag popularity, tag representativeness and the affinity between user and tag and the third approach recommends pages in grouped by tag. The experiment evaluates the wiki performance in different scenarios regarding the amount of pages, tags and users. The results provide insights for the efficient widget allocation and performance management. 0 0
Factors affecting volunteer participants' performance in the virtual community: The case of knowledge sharing website Hichang Cho
Jahng J.
15th Americas Conference on Information Systems 2009, AMCIS 2009 English 2009 Virtual community has gained much attention from academia and practice due to its great outcomes and potentials. One of the major issues here is how the virtual communities made such enormous outcomes with little control and reward, as wikipedia or Linux did. This study assumes that the voluntary participant's performance has a direct impact on the productivity of the virtual community, and tries to find factors affecting the participant's performance in the virtual community. We employ as theoretical bases Expectancy Theory, Goal Setting Theory, and literatures related with volunteers' motivation. This study conducts the email survey from participants of knowledge service community of NHN, a leading Korean online company. We find that high-performing participants have individual ability, goal congruence, and the greater level of effort motivated by personal or collective functions. 0 0
Back to basics: Electronic pedagogy from the (virtual) ground up Ehrlich J. Shakespeare English 2008 Educators today have no agreement on what "electronic Shakespeares" in the classroom might mean, or even what they should mean. In this essay, I will survey a variety of electronic resources that have been used in classrooms effectively, and examine a variety of ways that students can use them to learn. In doing so, I hope to suggest ways in which these tools can be used effectively in the classroom today, regardless of which tools ultimately become part of a teacher's arsenal in 20 years. Jerome McGann argues that "humanities education ... will not take the use of digital technology seriously until one demonstrates how its tools improve the ways we explore and explain aesthetic works ...". It is my hope that this exploration can help to provide that kind of explanation. By looking in turn at wikis, blogs, online texts, concordances and a wide range of "performance media", I hope to identify those areas where good pedagogy can be enhanced by the strengths of the Internet. In doing so, I argue that using the Internet in the classroom can be a humanizing tool and a promotion of the kinds of close reading the Internet may otherwise discourage. Nonetheless, electronic Shakespeares look a lot like electronic Joyces and electronic bibles: like Shakespeare's cultural ubiquity, his exceptionality is a social construction, not apparent in the application of electronic methods. 0 0