Open source

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Title Author(s) Published in Language DateThis property is a special property in this wiki. Abstract R C
Leveraging open source tools for Web mining Pennete K.C. Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering English 2014 Web mining is the most pursued research area and often the most challenging one. Using web mining, corporates and individuals alike are inquisitively pursuing to unravel the hidden knowledge underneath the diverse gargantuan volumes of web data. This paper tries to present how a researcher can leverage the colossal knowledge available in open access sites such as Wikipedia as a source of information rather than subscribing to closed networks of knowledge and use open source tools rather than prohibitively priced commercial mining tools to do web mining. The paper illustrates a step-by-step usage of R and RapidMiner in web mining to enable a novice to understand the concepts as well as apply it in real world. 0 0
Open collaboration for innovation: Principles and performance Levine S.S.
Prietula M.J.
Organization Science English 2014 The principles of open collaboration for innovation (and production), once distinctive to open source software, are now found in many other ventures. Some of these ventures are Internet based: for example, Wikipedia and online communities. Others are off-line: they are found in medicine, science, and everyday life. Such ventures have been affecting traditional firms and may represent a new organizational form. Despite the impact of such ventures, their operating principles and performance are not well understood. Here we define open collaboration (OC), the underlying set of principles, and propose that it is a robust engine for innovation and production. First, we review multiple OC ventures and identify four defining principles. In all instances, participants create goods and services of economic value, they exchange and reuse each other's work, they labor purposefully with just loose coordination, and they permit anyone to contribute and consume. These principles distinguish OC from other organizational forms, such as firms or cooperatives. Next, we turn to performance. To understand the performance of OC, we develop a computational model, combining innovation theory with recent evidence on human cooperation. We identify and investigate three elements that affect performance: the cooperativeness of participants, the diversity of their needs, and the degree to which the goods are rival (subtractable). Through computational experiments, we find that OC performs well even in seemingly harsh environments: when cooperators are a minority, free riders are present, diversity is lacking, or goods are rival. We conclude that OC is viable and likely to expand into new domains. The findings also inform the discussion on new organizational forms, collaborative and communal. 0 0
Sticky wikis Berghel H. Computer English 2014 After observing and developing online reference websites for 20 plus years, it's clear the biggest hurdle to reliability still hasn't been overcome. 0 0
Design for Free Learning - a Case Study on Supporting a Service Design Course Teresa Consiglio
Gerrit C. van der Veer
WikiSym August 2012 In this experience report, we provide a case study on the use of information and communication technology (ICT) in higher education, developing an open source interactive learning environment to support a blended course. Our aim is to improve the quality of adult distance learning, ultimately involving peers worldwide, by developing learning invironments as flexible as possible regardless of the culture and context of use, of individual learning style and age of the learners.

Our example concerns a course of Service Design where the teacher was physically present only intermittently for part of the course while in the remaining time students worked in teams using our online learning environment.

We developed a structure where students are guided through discovery learning and mutual teaching. We will show how we started from the students’ authentic goals and how we supported them by a simple structure of pacing the discovery process and merging theoretical understanding with practice in real life.

Based on these first empirical results practical guidelines have been developed regarding improvements on the structure provided for the learning material and on the interaction facilities for students, teachers and instructional designers.
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Manypedia: Comparing Language Points of View of Wikipedia Communities Paolo Massa
Federico Scrinzi
WikiSym English August 2012 The 4 million articles of the English Wikipedia have been written in a collaborative fashion by more than 16 million volunteer editors. On each article, the community of editors strive to reach a neutral point of view, representing all significant views fairly, proportionately, and without biases. However, beside the English one, there are more than 280 editions of Wikipedia in different languages and their relatively isolated communities of editors are not forced by the platform to discuss and negotiate their points of view. So the empirical question is: do communities on different language Wikipedias develop their own diverse Linguistic Points of View (LPOV)? To answer this question we created and released as open source Manypedia, a web tool whose aim is to facilitate cross-cultural analysis of Wikipedia language communities by providing an easy way to compare automatically translated versions of their different representations of the same topic. 0 0
Manypedia: Comparing language points of view of Wikipedia communities Paolo Massa
Federico Scrinzi
WikiSym 2012 English 2012 The 4 million articles of the English Wikipedia have been written in a collaborative fashion by more than 16 million volunteer editors. On each article, the community of editors strive to reach a neutral point of view, representing all significant views fairly, proportionately, and without biases. However, beside the English one, there are more than 280 editions of Wikipedia in different languages and their relatively isolated communities of editors are not forced by the platform to discuss and negotiate their points of view. So the empirical question is: do communities on different language Wikipedias develop their own diverse Linguistic Points of View (LPOV)? To answer this question we created and released as open source Manypedia, a web tool whose aim is to facilitate cross-cultural analysis of Wikipedia language communities by providing an easy way to compare automatically translated versions of their different representations of the same topic. 0 0
Open Source Production of Encyclopedias: Editorial Policies at the Intersection of Organizational and Epistemological Trust De Laat P.B. Social Epistemology English 2012 The ideas behind open source software are currently applied to the production of encyclopedias. A sample of six English text-based, neutral-point-of-view, online encyclopedias of the kind are identified: h2g2, Wikipedia, Scholarpedia, Encyclopedia of Earth, Citizendium and Knol. How do these projects deal with the problem of trusting their participants to behave as competent and loyal encyclopedists? Editorial policies for soliciting and processing content are shown to range from high discretion to low discretion; that is, from granting unlimited trust to limited trust. Their conceptions of the proper role for experts are also explored and it is argued that to a great extent they determine editorial policies. Subsequently, internal discussions about quality guarantee at Wikipedia are rendered. All indications are that review and "super-review" of new edits will become policy, to be performed by Wikipedians with a better reputation. Finally, while for encyclopedias the issue of organizational trust largely coincides with epistemological trust, a link is made with theories about the acceptance of testimony. It is argued that both non-reductionist views (the "acceptance principle" and the "assurance view") and reductionist ones (an appeal to background conditions, and a-newly defined-"expertise view") have been implemented in editorial strategies over the past decade. 0 0
Some of all human knowledge: Gender and participation in peer production Andrea Forte
Judd Antin
Bardzell S.
Honeywell L.
John Riedl
Stierch S.
English 2012 The promise of peer production includes resources produced by volunteers and released freely for the world to use. Wikipedia and Open Source Software are famous examples of peer-produced projects. Anyone is free to participate, but not everybody does. Wikipedia aims to collect the "sum of all human knowledge", but only about 13% of editors on the site are female [3]. In Open Source Software, the percentage of female contributors has been estimated near 1% [4]. If women are not well represented among authors of the most widely accessed reference source on the planet, are important voices muted? Could these projects be even more impactful with more female participation? This panel includes experts in gender theory and open collaboration, activists, and representatives from peer-produced projects to discuss recent findings and trends in this complex and often contentious research space. 0 0
The Wasp System: An open source environment for managing and analyzing genomic data McLellan A.S.
Dubin R.A.
Jing Q.
Broin P.T.
Moskowitz D.
Suzuki M.
Calder R.B.
Hargitai J.
Golden A.
Greally J.M.
Genomics English 2012 The challenges associated with the management, analysis and interpretation of assays based on massively-parallel sequencing (MPS) are both individually complex and numerous. We describe what we believe to be the appropriate solution, one that represents a departure from traditional computational biology approaches. The Wasp System is an open source, distributed package written in Spring/J2EE that creates a foundation for development of an end-to-end solution for MPS-based experiments or clinical tests. Recognizing that one group will be unable to solve these challenges in isolation, we describe a nurtured open source development model that will allow the software to be collectively used, shared and developed. The ultimate goal is to emulate resources such as the Virtual Observatory of the astrophysics community, enabling computationally-inexpert scientists and clinicians to explore and interpret their MPS data. Here we describe the current implementation and development of the Wasp System and the roadmap for its community development. 0 0
WREF 2012: OPENEI - An open energy data and information exchange for international audiences Brodt-Giles D. World Renewable Energy Forum, WREF 2012, Including World Renewable Energy Congress XII and Colorado Renewable Energy Society (CRES) Annual Conferen English 2012 Designed to be the world's most comprehensive, open, and collaborative energy information network, Open Energy Information (OpenEI - supplies essential energy data to decision makers and supports a global energy transformation. The platform, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), is intended for global contribution and collaboration. Energy information and data are available on the Internet already, but the resources are dispersed, published in disparate formats, highly variable in quality and usefulness, and difficult to find. OpenEI provides a solution. The open-source Web platform-similar to the Wikipedia platform-provides more than 800 energy data sets and 55,000 pages of information, analyses, tools, images, maps, and other resources in a completely searchable and editable format. OpenEI's international user base spans more than 200 countries. Because the platform is so interactive and easy to contribute to, content is growing daily. Copyright 0 0
Wedata: A wiki system for service oriented tiny code sharing Kouichirou Eto
Masahiro Hamasaki
Hideaki Takeda
WikiSym 2012 English 2012 A new trend for applications for the Internet is to create and share tiny codes for applications like site-specific codes for a broswer extension. It needs a new tools to share and distribute such codes efficiently. We built a Wiki site called Wedata which stores tiny code for a particular service. Wedata has three features: machine readability, code sharing, and service orientation. Many developers already use Wedata for browser extensions. More than 1,300,000 users are using Wedata. As described in this paper, we describe the Wedata system, usage statistics, and the behavior of open collaboration on the system. 0 0
WikiTrip: Animated visualization over time of geo-location and gender of Wikipedians who edited a page Paolo Massa
Maurizio Napolitano
Federico Scrinzi
Michela Ferron
WikiSym 2012 English 2012 In this short paper, we present WikiTrip, a web tool we created and released as open source which provides a visualization over time of two kinds of information about the Wikipedians who edited a selected page: their location in the world and their gender. We also describe evidence that pages on a language edition of Wikipedia which receive most attention in terms of edits from countries where the language is not primarily spoken are about TV shows and stars, football teams or specific geographic locations. 0 0
Exploring linguistic points of view of Wikipedia Paolo Massa
Federico Scrinzi
WikiSym English 2011 The 3 million articles of the English Wikipedia has been written since 2011 by more than 14 million volunteers. On each article, the community of editors strive to reach a neutral point of view, representing all significant views fairly, proportionately, and without bias. However, beside the English one, there are more than 270 Wikipedias in different languages and their relatively isolated communities of editors are not forced by the platform to discuss and negotiate their points of view. So the empirical question is: do communities on different languages editions of Wikipedia develop their own diverse Linguistic Points of View (LPOV)? To answer this question we created Manypedia, a web tool whose goal is to ease cross-cultural comparisons of Wikipedia language communities by analyzing their different representations of the same topic. 0 1
New trends from libre software that may change education Gregorio Robles
Gonzales-Barahona J.M.
Fernandez-Gonzalez J.
2011 IEEE Global Engineering Education Conference, EDUCON 2011 English 2011 Libre software, also known as Open Source Software or Free Software, has already changed the way we know education. This influence goes from content-with examples such as the Wikipedia-, openness -for instance, the OCW- or tools -like learning management systems or desktop applications. In this paper, we introduce some new trends that are inspired in the libre software movement and that may change education in the near future. Among others, experiences such as the OpenSE project -where students can be free learners outside of any type of formal educational context- or the p2p University -an online community of open study groups for short university-level courses- will be presented and discussed. 0 0
Open source political community development: A five-stage adoption process Karpf D. Journal of Information Technology and Politics English 2011 This article considers the emergence of large-scale "commons-based peer production" projects such from an institutional development perspective. The argument it makes is threefold. First, that that the lowered transaction costs and information abundance found online transform a subset of public goods problems, essentially replacing free-ridership with mass coordination as the central challenge. Second, that the boundaries of this subset are defined by a "power-law topology" that leads to the emergence of online hub spaces and serves to resolve search problems endemic to the anti-geographic online landscape. These boundary conditions limit the overall impact of commons- based peer production for the political space. Third, that all such hubs move through a common five-stage institutional development process, directly related to standard models of the diffusion of innovation. Identification of the institutional development process behindWikipedia leads in turn to the stipulation of seven hypotheses: the "Field of Dreams" fallacy, the "Interest Horizons" thesis, "Political Strategy Is Not Like Computer Code," the "Location-based Wave" thesis, "Power Law Fragility Under Moore's Law," the "Punctuated Equilibrium" thesis, and "Code-Forking the Public Sphere." Each thesis holds direct implications for the potential and limitations of "open source" applications in the political arena. 0 0
Processing Wikipedia dumps: A case-study comparing the XGrid and mapreduce approaches Thiebaut D.
Yanyan Li
Jaunzeikare D.
Cheng A.
Recto E.R.
Riggs G.
Zhao X.T.
Stolpestad T.
Nguyen C.L.T.
CLOSER 2011 - Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Cloud Computing and Services Science English 2011 We present a simple comparison of the performance of three different cluster platforms: Apple's XGrid, and Hadoop the open-source version of Google's MapReduce as the total execution time taken by each to parse a 27-GByte XML dump of the English Wikipedia. A local hadoop cluster of Linux workstation, as well as an Elastic MapReduce cluster rented from Amazon are used. We show that for this specific workload, XGrid yields the fastest execution time, with the local Hadoop cluster a close second. The overhead of fetching data from Amazon's Simple Storage System (S3), along with the inability to skip the reduce, sort, and merge phases on Amazon penalizes this platform targeted for much larger data sets. 0 0
Social networks of Wikipedia Paolo Massa Hypertext English 2011 Wikipedia, the free online encyclopedia anyone can edit, is a live social experiment: millions of individuals volunteer their knowledge and time to collective create it. It is hence interesting trying to understand how they do it. While most of the attention concentrated on article pages, a less known share of activities happen on user talk pages, Wikipedia pages where a message can be left for the specific user. This public conversations can be studied from a Social Network Analysis perspective in order to highlight the structure of the “talk” network. In this paper we focus on this preliminary extraction step by proposing different algorithms. We then empirically validate the differences in the networks they generate on the Venetian Wikipedia with the real network of conversations extracted manually by coding every message left on all user talk pages. The comparisons show that both the algorithms and the manual process contain inaccuracies that are intrinsic in the freedom and unpredictability of Wikipedia growth. Nevertheless, a precise description of the involved issues allows to make informed decisions and to base empirical findings on reproducible evidence. Our goal is to lay the foundation for a solid computational sociology of wikis. For this reason we release the scripts encoding our algorithms as open source and also some datasets extracted out of Wikipedia conversations, in order to let other researchers replicate and improve our initial effort. 14 2
Wikipedia revision toolkit: Efficiently accessing Wikipedia's edit history Oliver Ferschke
Torsten Zesch
Iryna Gurevych
ACL HLT 2011 - 49th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Proceedings of Student Session English 2011 We present an open-source toolkit which allows (i) to reconstruct past states of Wikipedia, and (ii) to efficiently access the edit history of Wikipedia articles. Reconstructing past states of Wikipedia is a prerequisite for reproducing previous experimental work based on Wikipedia. Beyond that, the edit history of Wikipedia articles has been shown to be a valuable knowledge source for NLP, but access is severely impeded by the lack of efficient tools for managing the huge amount of provided data. By using a dedicated storage format, our toolkit massively decreases the data volume to less than 2% of the original size, and at the same time provides an easy-to-use interface to access the revision data. The language-independent design allows to process any language represented in Wikipedia. We expect this work to consolidate NLP research using Wikipedia in general, and to foster research making use of the knowledge encoded in Wikipedia's edit history. 0 0
Dynamic space for rent: Using commercial Web hosting to develop a Web 2.0 intranet Hodgins D. Journal of Web Librarianship English 2010 The explosion of Web 2.0 into libraries has left many smaller academic libraries (and other libraries with limited computing resources or support) to work in the cloud using free Web applications. The use of commercial Web hosting is an innovative approach to the problem of inadequate local resources. While the idea of insourcing IT will seem daunting to some, the process of setting up and administering hosting and applications is remarkably accessible to staff with basic word processing and Web skills. This article demonstrates the degree to which recent advances in commercial Web hosting and open-source applications have reduced the process of administering Web services, once time consuming and technically demanding, to near point-and-click simplicity. This article reports on the Kraemer Family Library's use of commercial Web hosting to develop and host a Web 2.0 staff intranet. The staff of 9.5 full-time equivalent librarians and 21.5 full-time equivalent staff serve 8,000 students and 700 faculty and staff at the University of Colorado at Colorado Springs. The small number of library faculty and staff provided the opportunity to experiment with Web 2.0 concepts and applications. Since certain IT-supported requirements were lacking, the library looked for noand low-cost ways to host the intranet outside the university computing environment. After researching the use of free Web applications, the library's planning team decided to build its intranet using open-source applications and commercial Web hosting. 0 0
Normative behaviour in wikipedia Christopher Goldspink Information Communication and Society English 2010 This paper examines the effect of norms and rules on editor communicative behaviour in Wikipedia. Specifically, processes of micro-coordination through speech acts are examined as a basis for norm establishment, maintenance, reinforcement and effectiveness. This is pursued by analysing discussion pages taken from a sample of controversial and featured articles. The results reveal some unexpected patterns. Despite the Wikipedia community generating a large number of rules, etiquettes and guidelines, the explicit invocation of rules and/or the use of wider social norms is rare and appears to play a very small role in influencing editor behaviour. The emergent pattern of communicative exchange is not well aligned either with rules established by Wikipedia contributors or with the characteristics of a coherent community and nor is it consistent with the behaviour needed to reach agreement on controversial topics. The paper concludes by offering some tentative hypotheses as to why this may be so and outlines possible future research which may help distinguish between alternatives. 0 1
Performance variations of two open-source cloud platforms Ueda Y.
Nakatani T.
IEEE International Symposium on Workload Characterization, IISWC'10 English 2010 The performance of workloads running on cloud platforms varies significantly depending on the cloud platform configurations. We evaluated the performance variations using two open-source cloud platforms, OpenNebula and Eucalyptus. To assess the performance variations on the cloud platforms, we created a representative workload from Wikipedia software and data. The performance with this workload was quite sensitive to two key configuration choices, the physical location of the virtual machine disk images (local disk or NFS), and eager or lazy allocation of the virtual machine disk images. Our performance metrics included (1) the provisioning times for the virtual machines, (2) the elapsed times for two types of batch processing, and (3) the throughputs of two types of Web transactions. The local-disk configuration was 75% slower for provisioning, 2.9 times faster for batch possessing, and 50% faster for Web transactions compared to the NFS configuration. Relative to lazy-allocation, eager-allocation took 2.7 times longer for provisioning and was 43% faster for batch processing, but was only 1.5% faster for Web transactions. Our results indicate that no configuration offers the best performance for all three of the metrics at the same time. If batch processing is more important than provisioning, the local-disk configuration with eager disk allocation should be used. Otherwise, local-disk allocation with lazy allocation should be used. We also evaluated a multi-tenancy scenario using the Apache DayTrader benchmark on Eucalyptus. The results show that VM provisioning significantly affected the throughputs of DayTrader due to the lack of any disk I/O throttling mechanism. 0 0
Scholarly knowledge development and dissemination in an international context: Approaches and tools for higher education Willis J.
Baron J.
Lee R.-A.
Gozza-Cohen M.
Currie A.
Computers in the Schools English 2010 This paper looks at the process of collaboratively creating and disseminating information resources, such as journals, books, papers, and multimedia resources in higher education. This process has been facilitated and encouraged by two relatively new movements, open-source and, especially, open access. The most definitive expression of the principles of open access is the Budapest Open Access Initiative. It calls for the creation of journals that are freely available via the Internet to anyone. The broad principles of open access can be the foundation for creating many types of information resources-from online textbooks to sophisticated instructional videos. What distinguishes such open access resources is that they are distributed without charge to users and that most of the individual and institutional authors give permission for them to be revised, remixed, and reformed by users, who may then distribute the "new" version of the resource. Much of the work on open access information resources is collaborative and involves international teams with diverse experiences and areas of expertise. Such collaboration is not easy, but there is a growing set of electronic tools that support such work. The electronic toolbox for collaboratively creating new information resources includes tools that can serve as "electronic hallways" where potential collaborators can meet and interact informally; gateway Web sites and document repositories that support the exchange of information; Web tools that support groups with special interests; tools for supporting project teams; collaborative writing support systems including file sharing, document exchange, and version control software; wikis where a team can collaboratively write and revise documents, and project management software. There are also many avenues for disseminating information resources. These include open-access journals and the software packages that support them such as the Open Journal Systems package from the Public Knowledge Project, preprint and repository archives and the software for creating such archives (e.g., dspace, Fedora, Joomla, and Drupal), Web resources for indexing and locating relevant information, and international as well as virtual conferences and the software for operating such meetings. This paper explores the different approaches to both creating and disseminating information resources for higher education and evaluates some of the most commonly used software options for supporting these activities. 0 0
Semantically enriched tools for the knowledge society: Case of project management and presentation Talas J.
Gregar T.
Pitner T.
Communications in Computer and Information Science English 2010 Working with semantically rich data is one of the stepping stones to the knowledge society. In recent years, gathering, processing, and using semantic data have made a big progress, particularly in the academic environment. However, the advantages of the semantic description remain commonly undiscovered by a "common user", including people from academia and IT industry that could otherwise profit from capabilities of contemporary semantic systems in the areas of project management and/or technology-enhanced learning. Mostly, the root cause lays in complexity and non-transparency of the mainstream semantic applications. The semantic tool for project management and presentation consists mainly of a module for the semantic annotation of wiki pages integrated into the project management system Trac. It combines the dynamic, easy-of-use nature and applicability of a wiki for project management with the advantages of semantically rich and accurate approach. The system is released as open-source (OS) and is used for management of students' and research projects at the research lab of the authors. 0 0
Standard Operating Procedures: Collaborative development and distributed use Wickler G.
Potter S.
ISCRAM 2010 - 7th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management: Defining Crisis Management 3.0, Proceedings English 2010 This paper describes a system that supports the distributed development and deployment of Standard Operating Procedures. The system is based on popular, open-source wiki software for the SOP development, and the I-X task-centric agent framework for deployment. A preliminary evaluation using an SOP for virtual collaboration is described and shows the potential of the approach. 0 0
Trust in wikipedia: How users trust information from an unknown source Teun Lucassen
Schraagen J.M.
Proceedings of the 4th Workshop on Information Credibility, WICOW '10 English 2010 The use of Wikipedia as an information source is becoming increasingly popular. Several studies have shown that its information quality is high. Normally, when considering information trust, the source of information is an important factor. However, because of the open-source nature of Wikipedia articles, their sources remain mostly unknown. This means that other features need to be used to assess the trustworthiness of the articles. We describe article features - such as images and references - which lay Wikipedia readers use to estimate trustworthiness. The quality and the topics of the articles are manipulated in an experiment to reproduce the varying quality on Wikipedia and the familiarity of the readers with the topics. We show that the three most important features are textual features, references and images. 0 2
What’s on Wikipedia and What’s Not... ? Cindy Royal
Deepina Kapila
Social Science Computer Review English February 2009 The World Wide Web continues to grow closer to achieving the vision of becoming the repository of all human knowledge, as features and applications that support user-generated content become more prevalent. Wikipedia is fast becoming an important resource for news and information. It is an online information source that is increasingly used as the first, and sometimes only, stop for online encyclopedic information. Using a method employed by Tankard and Royal to judge completeness of Web content, completeness of information on Wikipedia is assessed. Some topics are covered more comprehensively than others, and the predictors of these biases include recency, importance, population, and financial wealth. Wikipedia is more a socially produced document than a value-free information source. It reflects the viewpoints, interests, and emphases of the people who use it. 6 1
A web 2.0 and open source approach for management and sharing of multimedia data-case of the Tzu chi foundation Chen J.-H.
Yang H.-H.
Lecture Notes in Computer Science English 2009 The Tzu-Chi Foundation is one of the largest philanthropy foundations in Taiwan, with millions of members spread around the world. The search and sharing of vast member-generated information which could be in audio, video, photographs and various text formats, has long been a complex issue. Recently this foundation conducted an experimental project tempting to tackle this issue with web 2.0 approaches. A web-based prototype integrated from open source web album and wiki platform was developed and trial ran. This paper will discuss the experience and implication of this experimental project in the online community and managerial context. 0 0
Overcoming technical constraints for obtaining sustainable development with open source appropriate technology Pearce J.M.
Mushtaq U.
TIC-STH'09: 2009 IEEE Toronto International Conference - Science and Technology for Humanity English 2009 Open source appropriate technology (OSAT) refers to technologies that provide for sustainable development while being designed in the same fashion as free and open-source software. Facilitated by advances in information technology software and hardware, new ways to disseminate information such as wikis and Internet-enabled mobile phones, the global development of OSAT has emerged as a reality. This paper shows the sharing of design processes, appropriate tools, and technical information is enables more effective and rapid development of appropriate technologies for both industrialized and non-industrialized regions. This sharing will require the appropriate technology community to adopt open standards/licenses, document knowledge, and build on previous work. This paper offers solutions in the form of both business models and tools to overcome technical constraints of OSAT development in the forms of the platforms necessary on which to share and build knowledge about appropriate technologies. These solutions are open, easily accessible for those in need, have a low barrier to entry for both users and information creators, and must be vetted in order to utilized as a trustworthy source on critical information needs. Current progress towards implementing these solutions will be reviewed and recommendations will be made to further increase the rate of OSAT development. 0 0
Protocol for a systematic literature review of research on the Wikipedia Chitu Okoli
Kira Schabram
International Conference on Management of Emergent Digital EcoSystems English 2009 Context: Wikipedia has become one of the ten-most visited sites on the Web, and the world's leading source of Web reference information. Its rapid success has attracted over 1,000 scholarly studies that treat Wikipedia as a major topic or data source. Objectives: This article presents a protocol for conducting a systematic mapping (a broad-based literature review) of research on Wikipedia. It identifies what research has been conducted; what research questions have been asked, which have been answered; and what theories and methodologies have been employed to study Wikipedia. Methods: This protocol follows the rigorous methodology of evidence-based software engineering to conduct a systematic mapping study. Results and conclusions: This protocol reports a study in progress. 0 1
Voluntary engagement in an open web-based encyclopedia: Wikipedians, and why they do it. Joachim Schroer and Guido Hertel Media Psychology, , issue 1, 96-120 2009 The online encyclopedia Wikipedia is a highly successful “Open Content” project, written and maintained completely by volunteers. Little is known, however, about the motivation of these volunteers. Results from an online survey among 106 contributors to the German Wikipedia project are presented. Both motives derived from social sciences (perceived benefits, identification with Wikipedia, etc.) as well as perceived task characteristics (autonomy, skill variety, etc.) were assessed as potential predictors of contributors’ satisfaction and self-reported engagement. Satisfaction ratings were particularly determined by perceived benefits, identification with the Wikipedia community, and task characteristics. Engagement was particularly determined by high tolerance for opportunity costs and by task characteristics, the latter effect being partially mediated by intrinsic motivation. Relevant task characteristics for contributors’ engagement and satisfaction were perceived autonomy, task significance, skill variety, and feedback. Models from social sciences and work psychology complemented each other by suggesting that favorable task experiences might counter perceived opportunity costs in Wikipedia contributors. Moreover, additional data reported by Wikipedia authors indicate the importance of generativity motives. 0 0
What's on Wikipedia, and What's Not . . . ? Cindy Royal
Deepina Kapila
Soc. Sci. Comput. Rev. English 2009 0 0
What's on wikipedia, and what's not... ?: Assessing completeness of information Cindy Royal
Deepina Kapila
Social Science Computer Review English 2009 The World Wide Web continues to grow closer to achieving the vision of becoming the repository of all human knowledge, as features and applications that support user-generated content become more prevalent. Wikipedia is fast becoming an important resource for news and information. It is an online information source that is increasingly used as the first, and sometimes only, stop for online encyclopedic information. Using a method employed by Tankard and Royal to judge completeness of Web content, completeness of information on Wikipedia is assessed. Some topics are covered more comprehensively than others, and the predictors of these biases include recency, importance, population, and financial wealth. Wikipedia is more a socially produced document than a value-free information source. It reflects the viewpoints, interests, and emphases of the people who use it. 0 0
The motivational arc of massive virtual collaboration Kevin Crowston
Isabelle Fagnot
IFIP WG 9.5 Working Conference on Virtuality and Society: Massive Virtual Communities English 1 July 2008 Massive virtual collaborations (MVC) involve large numbers of mostly unpaid

contributors collectively creating new content. Wikipedia is the most dramatic example of MVC; smaller-scale examples include blogs and discussion groups and free/libre open source software (FLOSS) projects. In this paper, we propose a model of motivations for contribution to MVC that integrates various theoretical perspectives to extend prior work. Specifically, we distinguish three different levels of contribution to projects (initial, sustained and meta) and capture the dynamic and recursive effects of contributions on emergent

individual and project states.
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Collaboration in context: Comparing article evolution among subject disciplines in Wikipedia Katherine Ehmann
Andrew Large
And Jamshid Beheshti
2008 This exploratory study examines the relationships between article and Talk page contributions and their effect on article quality in Wikipedia. The sample consisted of three articles each from the hard sciences, soft sciences, and humanities, whose talk page and article edit histories were observed over a five–month period and coded for contribution types. Richness and neutrality criteria were then used to assess article quality and results were compared within and among subject disciplines. This study reveals variability in article quality across subject disciplines and a relationship between Talk page discussion and article editing activity. Overall, results indicate the initial article creator’s critical role in providing a framework for future editing as well as a remarkable stability in article content over time. 0 2
Exploring motivations for contributing to open source initiatives: The roles of contribution context and personal values Shaul Oreg
Oded Nov
Computers in Human Behavior English 2008 We explore contextual and dispositional correlates of the motivation to contribute to open source initiatives. We examine how the context of the open source project, and the personal values of contributors, are related to the types of motivations for contributing. A web-based survey was administered to 300 contributors in two prominent open source contexts: software and content. As hypothesized, software contributors placed a greater emphasis on reputation-gaining and self-development motivations, compared with content contributors, who placed a greater emphasis on altruistic motives. Furthermore, the hypothesized relationships were found between contributors' personal values and their motivations for contributing. 0 1
Learning to Trust the Crowd: Some Lessons from Wikipedia F. Xavier Olleros MCETECH English 2008 0 3
Collaborative knowledge at the grass-roots level: The risks and rewards of corporate Wikis Pfaff C.C.
Helen Hasan
PACIS 2007 - 11th Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems: Managing Diversity in Digital Enterprises English 2007 The open source movement is founded on the concept of democratising knowledge to freely collaborate and exchange information at the grass-roots level. As Wikis are philosophically grounded in this movement, the use of corporate Wikis in the collaborative creation and operation of knowledge management systems holds considerable potential. However, the impact of using corporate Wikis in the business environment has uncovered some challenging issues such as licensing, accountability and liability regarding copyright, which may require a change in the way we think about intellectual property and licensing in this connected world. 0 0
Enabling customer-centricity using wikis and the wiki Way Christian Wagner
Ann Majchrzak
Journal of Management Information Systems English 2006 Customer-centric business makes the needs and resources of individual customers the starting point for planning new products and services or improving existing ones. While customer-centricity has received recent attention in the marketing literature, technologies to enable customer-centricity have been largely ignored in research and theory development. In this paper, we describe one enabling technology - wikis. Wiki is a Web-based collaboration technology designed to allow anyone to update any information posted to a wiki-based Web site. As such, wikis can be used to enable customers to not only access but also change the organization's Web presence, creating previously unheard of opportunities for joint content development and "peer production" of Web content. At the same time, such openness may make the organization vulnerable to Web site defacing, destruction of intellectual property, and general chaos. In this zone of tension-between opportunity and possible failure - an increasing number of organizations are experimenting with the use of wikis and the wiki way to engage customers. Three cases of organizations using wikis to foster customer-centricity are described, with each case representing an ever-increasing level of customer engagement. An examination of the three cases reveals six characteristics that affect customer engagement - community custodianship, goal alignment among contributors, value-adding processes, emerging layers of participation, critical mass of management and monitoring activity, and technologies in which features are matched to assumptions about how the community collaborates. Parallels between our findings and those evolving in studies of the open source software movement are drawn. © 2007 M.E. Sharpe, Inc. 0 1
Using Wikis in Software Development Panagiotis Louridas IEEE Softw. English 2006 0 2
What have the Romans is academics ever done for us?' The lessons of open-source Bryant A. ICIS 2006 Proceedings - Twenty Seventh International Conference on Information Systems English 2006 This paper seeks to develop the motivations and aspirations underlying the primary theme for ICIS 2006 - 'IT for Underserved Communities'. In so doing the case is made that those keen to mobilize and harness the emancipatory and empowering potential of Information & Communications Technology for community-based projects should consider that the very existence of this technology opens up alternative models of co-operation and collaboration. These models themselves provide the basis for breaking away from 'traditional' command-and-control models of management and co-ordination; allowing participants, or potential participants, to coordinate their efforts along the lines exemplified by the open-source software movement and the contributors to Wikipedia: Models of co-ordination that ought not to work, but appear to do so. 0 0
Wikis of Locality: Insights from the Open Guides Mark Gaved
Tom Heath
Marc Eisenstadt
WikiSym English 2006 0 0
Wikis of locality: Insights from the open guides Mark Gaved
Tom Heath
Marc Eisenstadt
Proceedings of WikiSym'06 - 2006 International Symposium on Wikis English 2006 In this paper we describe an emerging form of wikis - wikis of locality - that support physical rather than virtual communities. We draw on our experience as administrators of the Open Guide to Milton Keynes, one of the Open Guides family of community developed local information guides built using wiki software, and present observations of the potential value and unique characteristics of wikis of locality from a practitioner's perspective. Preliminary findings from a current survey of other Open Guide administrators are presented to highlight types of usage, issues and potential areas for future research. Copyright 2006 ACM. 0 0
Building collaborative knowledge bases: An open source approach using wiki software in teaching and research Mindel J.L.
Verma S.
Association for Information Systems - 11th Americas Conference on Information Systems, AMCIS 2005: A Conference on a Human Scale English 2005 [No abstract available] 0 0
The end of print: Digitization and its consequence - Revolutionary changes in scholarly and social communication and in scientific research Davidson L.A. International Journal of Toxicology English 2005 The transformation from print to digital media for scientific communication, driven in part by the growth of the Internet and the tremendous explosion in the amount of information now available to everybody, is creating fundamental changes in institutions such as publishers, libraries, and universities that primarily exist for the creation, management, and distribution of information and knowledge. Scientific, technological, and medical journals are the first publications to be completely transformed from print to digital format but monographs are beginning to appear in digital format as well and soon all communication and publishing of scientific information will be entirely electronic. In fact, this change is affecting all components of the scientific enterprise, from personal correspondence and laboratory methods to peer reviewing and the quality assessment of scientific research. Along with these radical and rapid changes in information presentation and distribution are coincident changes in the expectations of both the public and other scientists, with both groups demanding ever more rapid, open, and global access to scientific information than has been available in the past. The consequence of this revolution in the mechanics of communications technology is threatening the very existence of a number of highly regarded institutions such as intellectual property, commercial publishers, scientific societies, and academic libraries and might soon begin to threaten even the traditional university. Copyright 0 0