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Title Author(s) Published in Language DateThis property is a special property in this wiki. Abstract R C
Similar Gaps, Different Origins? Women Readers and Editors at Greek Wikipedia Ioannis Protonotarios
Vasiliki Sarimpei
Jahna Otterbacher
Tenth International AAAI Conference on Web and Social Media English 17 May 2016 As a global, multilingual project, Wikipedia could serve as a repository for the world’s knowledge on an astounding range of topics. However, questions of participation and diversity among editors continue to be burning issues. We present the first targeted study of participants at Greek Wikipedia, with the goal of better understanding their motivations. Smaller Wikipedias play a key role in fostering the project’s global character, but typically receive little attention from researchers. We developed two survey instruments, administered in Greek, based on the 2011 Wikipedia Readership and Editors Surveys. Consistent with previous studies, we found a gender gap, with women making up only 38% and 15% of readers and editors, respectively, and with men editors being much more active. Our data suggest two salient explanations: 1) women readers more often lack confidence with respect to their knowledge and technical skills as compared to men, and 2) women’s behaviors may be driven by personal motivations such as enjoyment and learning, rather than by “leaving their mark” on the community, a concern more common among men. Interestingly, while similar proportions of men and women readers use multiple language editions, more women contribute to English Wikipedia in addition to the Greek language community. Future research should consider how this impacts their participation at Greek Wikipedia 11 0
Motivations for Contributing to Health-Related Articles on Wikipedia: An Interview Study Farič N
Potts HWW
Journal of Medical Internet Research English 3 December 2014 Background: Wikipedia is one of the most accessed sources of health information online. The current English-language Wikipedia contains more than 28,000 articles pertaining to health.

Objective: The aim was to characterize individuals’ motivations for contributing to health content on the English-language Wikipedia.

Methods: A set of health-related articles were randomly selected and recent contributors invited to complete an online questionnaire and follow-up interview (by Skype, by email, or face-to-face). Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using thematic analysis and a realist grounded theory approach.

Results: A total of 32 Wikipedians (31 men) completed the questionnaire and 17 were interviewed. Those completing the questionnaire had a mean age of 39 (range 12-59) years; 16 had a postgraduate qualification, 10 had or were currently studying for an undergraduate qualification, 3 had no more than secondary education, and 3 were still in secondary education. In all, 15 were currently working in a health-related field (primarily clinicians). The median period for which they have been an active editing Wikipedia was 3-5 years. Of this group, 12 were in the United States, 6 were in the United Kingdom, 4 were in Canada, and the remainder from another 8 countries. Two-thirds spoke more than 1 language and 90% (29/32) were also active contributors in domains other than health. Wikipedians in this study were identified as health professionals, professionals with specific health interests, students, and individuals with health problems. Based on the interviews, their motivations for editing health-related content were summarized in 5 strongly interrelated categories: education (learning about subjects by editing articles), help (wanting to improve and maintain Wikipedia), responsibility (responsibility, often a professional responsibility, to provide good quality health information to readers), fulfillment (editing Wikipedia as a fun, relaxing, engaging, and rewarding activity), and positive attitude to Wikipedia (belief in the value of Wikipedia). An additional factor, hostility (from other contributors), was identified that negatively affected Wikipedians’ motivations.

Conclusions: Contributions to Wikipedia’s health-related content in this study were made by both health specialists and laypeople of varying editorial skills. Their motivations for contributing stem from an inherent drive based on values, standards, and beliefs. It became apparent that the community who most actively monitor and edit health-related articles is very small. Although some contributors correspond to a model of “knowledge philanthropists,” others were focused on maintaining articles (improving spelling and grammar, organization, and handling vandalism). There is a need for more people to be involved in Wikipedia’s health-related content.
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A cross-cultural comparison on contributors' motivations to online knowledge sharing: Chinese vs. Germans Zhu B.
Gao Q.
Nohdurft E.
Lecture Notes in Computer Science English 2014 Wikipedia is the most popular online knowledge sharing platform in western countries. However, it is not widely accepted in eastern countries. This indicates that culture plays a key role in determining users' acceptance of online knowledge sharing platforms. The purpose of this study is to investigate the cultural differences between Chinese and Germans in motivations for sharing knowledge, and further examine the impacts of these motives on the actual behavior across two cultures. A questionnaire was developed to explore the motivation factors and actual behavior of contributors. 100 valid responses were received from Chinese and 34 responses from the Germans. The results showed that the motivations were significantly different between Chinese and Germans. The Chinese had more consideration for others and cared more about receiving reward and strengthening the relationship, whereas Germans had more concerns about losing competitiveness. The impact of the motives on the actual behavior was also different between Chinese and Germans. 0 0
Motivating Wiki-based collaborative learning by increasing awareness of task conflict: A design science approach Wu K.
Vassileva J.
Xiaohua Sun
Fang J.
Lecture Notes in Computer Science English 2014 Wiki system has been deployed in many collaborative learning projects. However, lack of motivation is a serious problem in the collaboration process. The wiki system is originally designed to hide authorship information. Such design may hinder users from being aware of task conflict, resulting in undesired outcomes (e.g. reduced motivation, suppressed knowledge exchange activities). We propose to incorporate two different tools in wiki systems to motivate learners by increasing awareness of task conflict. A field test was executed in two collaborative writing projects. The results from a wide-scale survey and a focus group study confirmed the utility of the new tools and suggested that these tools can help learners develop both extrinsic and intrinsic motivations to contribute. This study has several theoretical and practical implications, it enriched the knowledge of task conflict, proposed a new way to motivate collaborative learning, and provided a low-cost resolution to manage task conflict. 0 0
Effectiveness of shared leadership in Wikipedia Haiping Zhu
Kraut R.E.
Aniket Kittur
Human Factors English 2013 Objective: The objective of the paper is to understand leadership in an online community, specifically, Wikipedia. Background: Wikipedia successfully aggregates millions of volunteers' efforts to create the largest encyclopedia in human history. Without formal employment contracts and monetary incentives, one significant question for Wikipedia is how it organizes individual members with differing goals, experience, and commitment to achieve a collective outcome. Rather than focusing on the role of the small set of people occupying a core leadership position, we propose a shared leadership model to explain the leadership in Wikipedia. Members mutually influence one another by exercising leadership behaviors, including rewarding, regulating, directing, and socializing one another. Method: We conducted a two-phase study to investigate how distinct types of leadership behaviors (transactional, aversive, directive, and person-focused), the legitimacy of the people who deliver the leadership, and the experience of the people who receive the leadership influence the effectiveness of shared leadership in Wikipedia. Results: Our results highlight the importance of shared leadership in Wikipedia and identify trade-offs in the effectiveness of different types of leadership behaviors. Aversive and directive leadership increased contribution to the focal task, whereas transactional and person-focused leadership increased general motivation. We also found important differences in how newcomers and experienced members responded to leadership behaviors from peers. Application: These findings extend shared leadership theories, contribute new insight into the important underlying mechanisms in Wikipedia, and have implications for practitioners who wish to design more effective and successful online communities. Copyright 0 0
Erfolgsfaktoren von Social Media: Wie "funktionieren" Wikis? Florian L. Mayer Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg German 2013 Wann sind Wikis oder allgemeiner: Social Media erfolgreich? Wenn sie kommunikativ "lebendig" sind! Diesem "kommunikativen Erfolg" liegen Strukturprinzipien zugrunde, die diese Arbeit sichtbar macht. Sie beschreibt konkrete Aufmerksamkeits-, Motivations- und Organisationsstrukturen, und macht so den Erfolg der Leuchttürme wie Wikipedia oder Facebook, aber auch die Schwierigkeiten im Einsatz von Social Media in Organisationen und Gruppen verstehbar. Mit den Begriffen Mikrokommunikation und Mikrokollaboration liefert sie darüber hinaus eine Beschreibung neuer Formen gesellschaftlicher Kommunikation. 0 0
Formal and informal context factors as contributors to student engagement in a guided discovery-based program of game design learning Rebecca Reynolds
Chiu M.M.
Learning, Media and Technology English 2013 This paper explored informal (after-school) and formal (elective course in-school) learning contexts as contributors to middle-school student attitudinal changes in a guided discovery-based and blended e-learning program in which students designed web games and used social media and information resources for a full school year. Formality of the program context did not substantially influence attitude changes but did appear to influence learning outcomes. While intrinsic motivation did not change in the aggregate from pre- to post-program among students, positive changes in intrinsic motivation were found to be associated with engagement in almost all areas of student engagement in Globaloria, with several at-home engagement changes measured. This finding challenges critiques of discovery-based learning as being de-motivating. Lower parent education among students was associated with positive changes in self-efficacy for online research indicating that disadvantaged students may stand to benefit from programs like this one. The study offers support for the need to more definitively explicate instructional design and context factors in educational technology research when investigating influences upon learning outcomes. The study holds implications for designing effective digital literacy interventions, and contributes to theory in the learning sciences and socio-technical systems research. 0 0
Personality traits and knowledge sharing in online communities Jadin T.
Gnambs T.
Batinic B.
Computers in Human Behavior English 2013 Adopting diffusion theory and the concept of social value orientation, the effects of personality traits on knowledge sharing in a virtual open content community are investigated. In addition to the main effects of personality, it was hypothesized that intrinsic motivations would moderate the effects on knowledge sharing. A sample of N = 256 active users of Wikipedia provided measures of personality, motivation, and knowledge sharing. Latent regression analyses support the notion that authorship of Wikipedia is associated with higher levels of trendsetting and a prosocial value orientation. Moreover, moderation analyses demonstrate that the effect of the latter is moderated by individual differences in motivations to write. Differences with regard to opinion leadership could not be confirmed. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 0 0
Corporate wikis: The effects of owners' motivation and behavior on group members' engagement Ofer Arazy
Gellatly I.
Journal of Management Information Systems English 2012 Originally designed as a tool to alleviate bottlenecks associated with knowledge management, the suitability of wikis for corporate settings has been questioned given the inherent tensions between wiki affordances and the realities of organizational life. Drawing on regulatory focus theory and social cognitive theory, we developed and tested a model of the motivational dynamics underlying corporate wikis. We examined leaders (owners) and users of 187 wiki-based projects within a large multinational firm. Our findings revealed two countervailing motivational forces, one oriented toward accomplishment and achievement (promotion focus) and one oriented toward safety and security (prevention focus), that not only predicted owners' participation but also the overall level of engagement within the wiki groups. Our primary contribution is in showing that, notwithstanding the potential benefits to users, wikis can trigger risk-avoidance motives that potentially impede engagement. Practically, our findings call for an alignment between organizational procedures surrounding wiki deployment and the technology's affordances. © 2013 M.E. Sharpe, Inc. All rights reserved. 0 0
Effectiveness of shared leadership in online communities Haiping Zhu
Kraut R.
Aniket Kittur
English 2012 Traditional research on leadership in online communities has consistently focused on the small set of people occupying leadership roles. In this paper, we use a model of shared leadership, which posits that leadership behaviors come from members at all levels, not simply from people in high-level leadership positions. Although every member can exhibit some leadership behavior, different types of leadership behavior performed by different types of leaders may not be equally effective. This paper investigates how distinct types of leadership behaviors (transactional, aversive, directive and person-focused) and the legitimacy of the people who deliver them (people in formal leadership positions or not) influence the contributions that other participants make in the context of Wikipedia. After using propensity score matching to control for potential pre-existing differences among those who were and were not targets of leadership behaviors, we found that 1) leadership behaviors performed by members at all levels significantly influenced other members' motivation; 2) transactional leadership and person-focused leadership were effective in motivating others to contribute more, whereas aversive leadership decreased other contributors' motivations; and 3) legitimate leaders were in general more influential than regular peer leaders. We discuss the theoretical and practical implication of our work. 0 1
Enterprise wiki application scenarios and their relation to user motivation Lin D.
Ehrlich S.
Proceedings of the European Conference on Knowledge Management, ECKM English 2012 A wide range of companies is already using social software. Enterprise wikis are the most frequently used type. The best-known example of a wiki is the online encyclopedia Wikipedia. Many companies use Wikipedia as an example and thus establish an internal wiki encyclopedia. But there are also other purposes for which enterprise wikis can be used. For example, some companies use the wiki as a news portal, discussion platform or as a project management tool. In research there is still no adequate systematization of the possible uses of enterprise wikis. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to examine the different application scenarios of enterprise wikis and to explore application scenario-related motivational factors. To examine the application scenarios of enterprise wikis, a qualitative-oriented case study on the internal wiki of the company T-Systems Multimedia Solutions GmbH was conducted. The Atlassian Confluence based wiki called 'TeamWeb' was introducedin 2008 and has gradually established itself as a global Intranet. A peculiarity of this wiki is that it is not strictly specified, how the staff has to work with it. In this way, over time many different application scenarios have been established. There are now about 56,000 wiki pages in TeamWeb. These wiki pages were analyzed and categorized to application scenarios. As a result, a classification is proposed which differentiates and characterizes four archetypical application scenarios of enterprise wikis: 'presentation & communication', 'encyclopaedia', 'project organization' and 'collaborative design'. Subsequently semi-structured interviews with selected employees were conducted in order to understand their motivation to wiki-use. It could be determined that the use of wikis is alwaysprimarily for 'egoistic' goals. 'Altruistic' goals, such as 'help others', however, were rarely mentioned as a primary motivation. To promote the use of enterprise wikis, it is therefore necessary to further the 'egoistic' application scenarios. 0 0
Organizing without formal organization: Group identification, goal setting and social modeling in directing online production Haiping Zhu
Kraut R.
Aniket Kittur
English 2012 A challenge for many online production communities is to direct their members to accomplish tasks that are important to the group, even when these tasks may not match individual members' interests. Here we investigate how combining group identification and direction setting can motivate volunteers in online communities to accomplish tasks important to the success of the group as a whole. We hypothesize that group identity, the perception of belonging to a group, triggers in-group favoritism; and direction setting (including explicit direction from group goals and implicit direction from role models) focuses people's group-oriented motivation towards the group's important tasks. We tested our hypotheses in the context of Wikipedia's Collaborations of the Week (COTW), a group goal setting mechanism and a social event within Wikiprojects. Results demonstrate that 1) publicizing important group goals via COTW can have a strong motivating influence on editors who have voluntarily identified themselves as group members compared to those who have not self-identified; 2) the effects of goals spill over to non-goal related tasks; and 3) editors exposed to group role models in COTW are more likely to perform similarly to the models on group-relevant citizenship behaviors. Finally, we discuss design and managerial implications based on our findings. 0 0
The people's encyclopedia under the gaze of the sages: a systematic review of scholarly research on Wikipedia Chitu Okoli
Mohamad Mehdi
Mostafa Mesgari
Finn Årup Nielsen
Arto Lanamäki
English 2012 Wikipedia has become one of the ten most visited sites on the Web, and the world’s leading source of Web reference information. Its rapid success has inspired hundreds of scholars from various disciplines to study its content, communication and community dynamics from various perspectives. This article presents a systematic review of scholarly research on Wikipedia. We describe our detailed, rigorous methodology for identifying over 450 scholarly studies of Wikipedia. We present the WikiLit website (http wikilit dot referata dot com), where most of the papers reviewed here are described in detail. In the major section of this article, we then categorize and summarize the studies. An appendix features an extensive list of resources useful for Wikipedia researchers. 15 1
"How should I go from-to-without getting killed?" Motivation and benefits in open collaboration Katherine Panciera
Masli M.
Loren Terveen
WikiSym 2011 Conference Proceedings - 7th Annual International Symposium on Wikis and Open Collaboration English 2011 Many people rely on open collaboration projects to run their computer (Linux), browse the web (Mozilla Firefox), and get information (Wikipedia). While these projects are successful, many such efforts suffer from lack of participation. Understanding what motivates users to participate and the benefits they perceive from their participation can help address this problem. We examined these issues through a survey of contributors and information consumers in the Cyclopath geographic wiki. We analyzed subject responses to identify a number of key motives and perceived benefits. Based on these results, we articulate several general techniques to encourage more and new forms of participation in open collaboration communities. Some of these techniques have the potential to engage information consumers more deeply and productively in the life of open collaboration communities. 0 0
A empirical study on application of Wiki-based collaborative lesson-preparing Yingjie Ren
Chaohua Gong
Proceedings - 2011 International Conference of Information Technology, Computer Engineering and Management Sciences, ICM 2011 English 2011 Lesson-preparing is an important stage in the field of teaching activity. The aim of this paper was to explore the use of Eduwiki as a new effective collaborative lessonpreparing platform to support teachers' collaboration and teaching. Furthermore, to verify and explore how to integrate Eduwiki into teachers' daily lesson-preparing activities, a single-group post-test and interview were used in the experiments. The study showed that Eduwiki was effective in motivating peer-supported collaborative lesson-preparing activity, as well as for teachers' mutual development. School leaders' support was the first important motivator for implementing the experiments in Expriment1 and interested the collaboration support environment was the first important motivators for implementing the experiments in Experiment2. The external condition for teachers participating collaborative lesson-preparing was very easy for operation. It showed that those experienced teachers passed their experiences on to novices using Eduwiki, and made the novices achieved high performance by collaborative lesson-preparing. 0 0
Don't bite the newbies: how reverts affect the quantity and quality of Wikipedia work Aaron Halfaker
Aniket Kittur
John Riedl
WikiSym English 2011 Reverts are important to maintaining the quality of Wikipedia. They fix mistakes, repair vandalism, and help enforce policy. However, reverts can also be damaging, especially to the aspiring editor whose work they destroy. In this research we analyze 400,000 Wikipedia revisions to understand the effect that reverts had on editors. We seek to understand the extent to which they demotivate users, reducing the workforce of contributors, versus the extent to which they help users improve as encyclopedia editors. Overall we find that reverts are powerfully demotivating, but that their net influence is that more quality work is done in Wikipedia as a result of reverts than is lost by chasing editors away. However, we identify key conditions – most specifically new editors being reverted by much more experienced editors – under which reverts are particularly damaging. We propose that reducing the damage from reverts might be one effective path for Wikipedia to solve the newcomer retention problem. 0 2
Feedback mechanisms and their impact on motivation to contribute to wikis in higher education Athanasios Mazarakis
Clemens van Dinther
WikiSym English 2011 0 0
Modifier Wikipédia : un exercice de FLE Alexis D'Hautcourt The review of inquiry and research French 2011 Dans cet article, nous présentons les différentes étapes d'un exercice de lecture active de textes français authentiques, réalisé dans une université japonaise en exploitant les possibilités de l'encyclopédie en ligne Wikipedia. Il s'agissait pour les étudiants de lire et modifier des articles de Wikipédia relatifs à la France ou à la culture française. Cet exercice a permis d'augmenter la motivation des étudiants et de les aider à développer leur esprit critique. Nous proposons ensuite brièvement d'autres exercices d'ecriture qui peuvent être menés sur l'encyclopédie électronique. Editing Wikipedia provides for a good exercise in language education because it motivates students to read and write in a foreign language. This article details the process students followed in a Japanese university class to edit French entries in Wikipedia, the online encyclopedia. 0 0
Motivation and its mechanisms in virtual communities De Melo Bezerra J.
Hirata C.M.
Lecture Notes in Computer Science English 2011 Participation is a key aspect of success of virtual communities. Participation is dependent on the members' motivation that is driven by individual and environmental characteristics. This article investigates the individual and environmental factors that contribute to motivation and discusses mechanisms to improve motivation in virtual communities. The study is based on the Hersey and Blanchard's motivation model, the Maslow's hierarchy of needs, and the virtual community model. For the discussion of motivation mechanisms, we reviewed the literature and made qualitative interviews with members of the Wikipedia community. 0 0
My kind of people? Perceptions about wikipedia contributors and their motivations Judd Antin Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - Proceedings English 2011 Perceptions of information products such as Wikipedia can depend on assumptions and stereotypes about the people who create them. As new Wikipedians consider contributing they are likely to apply such assumptions and ask themselves: "Are Wikipedia contributors my kind of people? Is this a group I'd like to belong to?" In this qualitative study I address the potential challenge of these questions by exploring readers and infrequent editors' perceptions of Wikipedia contributors and their motivations. Through analysis of twenty semi-structured interviews, I find evidence of strong negative perceptions as well as positive ones which nonetheless prevent users from identifying with active Wikipedia contributors. I argue that these perceptions present a barrier to the progression of participation over time. I conclude by discussing the practical challenges of my findings for Wikipedia and other online collaborative systems. Copyright 2011 ACM. 0 1
Technology-mediated social participation: The next 25 years of HCI challenges Shneiderman B. Lecture Notes in Computer Science English 2011 The dramatic success of social media such as Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, blogs, and traditional discussion groups empowers individuals to become active in local and global communities. Some enthusiasts believe that with modest redesign, these technologies can be harnessed to support national priorities such as healthcare/wellness, disaster response, community safety, energy sustainability, etc. However, accomplishing these ambitious goals will require long-term research to develop validated scientific theories and reliable, secure, and scalable technology strategies. The enduring questions of how to motivate participation, increase social trust, and promote collaboration remain grand challenges even as the technology rapidly evolves. This talk invites researchers across multiple disciplines to participate in redefining our discipline of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) along more social lines to answer vital research questions while creating inspirational prototypes, conducting innovative evaluations, and developing robust technologies. By placing greater emphasis on social media, the HCI community could constructively influence these historic changes. 0 0
Towards a science of motivated learning in technology-supported environments Mayer R.E. Educational Technology Research and Development English 2011 This commentary reviews seven papers that study motivation with new media, contained in this special issue of Educational Technology Research & Development edited by Ruth Small. For each paper, this commentary summarizes exemplary contributions, offers an assessment of what is exciting, and suggests directions for future research. Some exciting contributions include using new media in an attempt to promote motivation such as game-making, collaborative wiki construction, and interaction with onscreen agents. Some important challenges for future research on motivation with new media are to develop testable theories and to collect evidence based on rigorous methodologies including evidence concerning the relation between motivation and learning outcomes 0 0
Writing Wikipedia articles as course assignment Chen W.
Reber R.
Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computers in Education, ICCE 2011 English 2011 In this paper, we discuss the implication of assigning students to write Wikipedia articles in a course on motivation and learning. As part of mandatory course assignments, students write an article about a concept that relates to the course topic. This was introduced in a course in information science and the feedback shows that students are highly motivated and they have learned more about the topic that they write about. 0 0
"Post it notes": Students' perceptions on assessment and reflective learning in the foreign language learning process using wikis Mideros D.
Roberts N.
IMSCI 2010 - 4th International Multi-Conference on Society, Cybernetics and Informatics, Proceedings English 2010 This paper describes the experience of a qualitative case study in which a WIKI was implemented as a strategy for independent and interactive learning/practice of the receptive foreign language skills of reading and listening. The main objective was to make an in-depth exploration of students' perceptions and responses to the implementation paying particular attention to the influence that a small percentage of the overall grade of the course could have had in the students' active, passive, or disengaged response to the exercise. The study observed and analyzed the voices of a group of Level 11 Spanish students of the Spanish Degree Program at the University of the West Indies, St. Augustine Campus during the first semester of the academic year 2009-2010. This paper serves as a mode of reflection of the benefits and challenges that technology in the form of WEB 2.0 carries in the learning process of a foreign language, in this case Spanish, analyzing motivation and students' dis/engagement with their own learning process at higher education. 0 0
Beyond vandalism: Wikipedia trolls Pnina Shachaf
Noriko Hara
Journal of Information Science English 2010 Research on trolls is scarce, but their activities challenge online communities; one of the main challenges of the Wikipedia community is to fight against vandalism and trolls. This study identifies Wikipedia trolls’ behaviours and motivations, and compares and contrasts hackers with trolls; it extends our knowledge about this type of vandalism and concludes that Wikipedia trolls are one type of hacker. This study reports that boredom, attention seeking, and revenge motivate trolls; they regard Wikipedia as an entertainment venue, and find pleasure from causing damage to the community and other people. Findings also suggest that trolls’ behaviours are characterized as repetitive, intentional, and harmful actions that are undertaken in isolation and under hidden virtual identities, involving violations of Wikipedia policies, and consisting of destructive participation in the community.
Research on trolls is scarce, but their activities challenge online communities; one of the main challenges of the Wikipedia community is to fight against vandalism and trolls. This study identifies Wikipedia trolls behaviours and motivations, and compares and contrasts hackers with trolls; it extends our knowledge about this type of vandalism and concludes that Wikipedia trolls are one type of hacker. This study reports that boredom, attention seeking, and revenge motivate trolls; they regard Wikipedia as an entertainment venue, and find pleasure from causing damage to the community and other people. Findings also suggest that trolls behaviours are characterized as repetitive, intentional, and harmful actions that are undertaken in isolation and under hidden virtual identities, involving violations of Wikipedia policies, and consisting of destructive participation in the community. The Author(s), 2010.
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Drivers of Knowledge Contribution in Open Fora: Findings from Wikipedians Amitava Dutta
Rahul Roy
Priya Seetharaman
Proceedings of 16th Americas Conference on Information Systems, 12-15 August 2010, Lima, Peru English 2010 Today’s social computing platforms include many open content fora where users voluntarily create and edit content online. This has opened up a new mechanism for knowledge acquisition raising related research questions, including identification of the reasons why people contribute to open fora. While altruism is mentioned most frequently, it has been suggested that there may be additional drivers in play. To explore this possibility, we examine contribution behavior in the Wikipedia context using qualitative data from two focus groups of Wikipedians. Content analysis of the data reveals a number of different drivers of contributor behavior which we then map into the Motivation-Ability-Opportunity (MAO) theoretical framework developed in the organizational behavior literature on work performance. The mapping can provide a theoretical basis for quantitative examination of contributor behavior and lead to more effective methods of managing collective knowledge in other open forum settings, such as corporate wikis.. 0 0
Factors affecting shapers of organizational wikis Dave Yates
Christian Wagner
Ann Majchrzak
J. Am. Soc. Inf. Sci. Technol. English 2010 0 0
Group size and incentives to contribute: A natural experiment at Chinese Wikipedia Xiaoquan (Michael) Zhang
Feng Zhu
English 2010 0 2
Integrating second life to enhance global intercultural collaboration projects Corder D.
Alice U.
ACM Inroads English 2010 Virtual collaboration requires competencies such as effective communication, and the ability to build trust and understanding to create a community with common aims. Virtual collaboration with other cultures also requires development of intercultural competence. Individuals need to understand cultural differences that determine behaviour, successful teamwork and outcomes. They must also be able to notice, reflect and critically analyse, and be aware of their own cultural identity, beliefs and assumptions. Research has identified issues that can arise in global virtual collaboration. This paper discusses these issues and the integration of Second Life to enhance virtual collaborative projects. It explores the advantages of avatar-based human interaction and experiences that enable engagement in real-time realistic activities, and using the interaction and experiences to develop virtual collaboration competencies, including intercultural competence. Based on trialling student exchanges in an intercultural competence course, technical and pedagogical issues relating to competence development are discussed, along with the relevance to computer sciences, and possible inter-disciplinary collaboration to facilitate the development of intercultural competence. 0 0
Motivations of Wikipedia content contributors Heng-Li Yang
Cheng-Yu Lai
English 2010 Rapidly developing web technologies have increased the prevalence of user-generated Internet content. Of the many websites with user-generated content on the Internet, one of the most renowned is Wikipedia, which is the largest multilingual free-content encyclopedia written by users collaboratively. Nevertheless, although contributing to Wikipedia takes time and knowledge, contributors are rarely compensated. As a result, there is a need to understand why individuals share their knowledge in Wikipedia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of both conventional and self concept-based motivation on individual willingness to share knowledge in Wikipedia. After performing an online questionnaire survey, SEM was applied to assess the proposed model and hypotheses. The analytical results showed that internal self-concept motivation is the key motivation for knowledge sharing on Wikipedia. 0 1
Readers are not free-riders: reading as a form of participation on Wikipedia Judd Antin
Coye Cheshire
Computer-Supported Cooperative Work English 2010 The success of Wikipedia as a large-scale collaborative effort has spurred researchers to examine the motivations and behaviors of Wikipedia's participants. However, this research has tended to focus on active involvement rather than more common forms of participation such as reading. In this paper we argue that Wikipedia's readers should not all be characterized as free-riders -- individuals who knowingly choose to take advantage of others' effort. Furthermore, we illustrate how readers provide a valuable service to Wikipedia. Finally, we use the notion of legitimate peripheral participation to argue that reading is a gateway activity through which newcomers learn about Wikipedia. We find support for our arguments in the results of a survey of Wikipedia usage and knowledge. Implications for future research and design are discussed. 0 5
Web community contributor's motivation: Japanese Wikipedia case study Kamata M.
Kato D.
Kunieda K.
Yamada K.
Proc. of the IADIS Int. Conf. Collaborative Technologies 2010, Proc. of the IADIS Int. Conf. Web Based Communities 2010, Part of the MCCSIS 2010 English 2010 Motivating participants is one of the vital issues for voluntary web communities. Although quite a few studies have portrayed the online encyclopedia Wikipedia as a successful example, many of them were focused only on Western language versions such as English. We carried out a survey on Japanese Wikipedia participants and examined their characteristics from a comparative point of view. As a result, we found that the desires to fix errors and fill gaps were the most powerful motivators. In addition, contrary to our initial expectations, many of the participants confessed that they did not feel pleasure from the editing activities. From this, we realized that they are motivated merely by the impulse to remove the incorrect information, and consequently they are ready to leave the community at any point. Moreover, while the wish to share knowledge was the most popular motivation in global studies previously done, few of our participants noted this as their drive. We conclude that familiarization of the community's basic position in society is the essential condition to motivate people continually. 0 1
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia' as a role model? Lessons for open innovation from an exploratory examination of the supposedly democratic-anarchic nature of Wikipedia Muller-Seitz G.
Reger G.
International Journal of Technology Management English 2010 Accounts of open source software (OSS) development projects frequently stress their democratic, sometimes even anarchic nature, in contrast to for-profit organisations. Given this observation, our research evaluates qualitative data from Wikipedia, a free online encyclopaedia whose development mechanism allegedly resembles that of OSS projects. Our research offers contributions to the field of open innovation research with three major findings. First, we shed light on Wikipedia as a phenomenon that has received scant attention from management scholars to date. Second, we show that OSS-related motivational mechanisms partially apply to Wikipedia participants. Third, our exploration of Wikipedia also reveals that its organisational mechanisms are often perceived as bureaucratic by contributors. This finding was unexpected since this type of problem is often associated with for-profit organisations. Such a situation risks attenuating the motivation of contributors and sheds a critical light on the nature of Wikipedia as a role model for open innovation processes. Copyright 0 0
A 'uses and gratifications' approach to understanding the role of wiki technology in enhancing teaching and learning outcomes Zhongqi Guo
YanChun Zhang
Stevens K.J.
17th European Conference on Information Systems, ECIS 2009 English 2009 The use of the Wikis in both post-graduate and undergraduate teaching is rapidly increasing in popularity. Much of the research into the use of this technology has focused on the practical aspects of how the technology can be used and is yet to address why it is used, or in what way it enhances teaching and learning outcomes. A comparison of the key characteristics of the constructivist learning approach and Wikis suggests that Wikis could provide considerable support of this approach, however research into the motivations for using the technology is required so that good teaching practices may be applied to the use of Wikis when utilized in the higher education context. This study articulates a research design grounded in the Technology Mediated Learning (TML) paradigm that could be used to explore teachers and students' motivations for using Wiki technology to enhance teaching and learning outcomes. Using the 'Uses and Gratification' approach, a popular technique used for understanding user motivation in technology adoption, a two-stage research design is set out. Finally, the paper concludes with a discussion of the implications for both information systems researchers and higher education. 0 0
Factors affecting volunteer participants' performance in the virtual community: The case of knowledge sharing website Hichang Cho
Jahng J.
15th Americas Conference on Information Systems 2009, AMCIS 2009 English 2009 Virtual community has gained much attention from academia and practice due to its great outcomes and potentials. One of the major issues here is how the virtual communities made such enormous outcomes with little control and reward, as wikipedia or Linux did. This study assumes that the voluntary participant's performance has a direct impact on the productivity of the virtual community, and tries to find factors affecting the participant's performance in the virtual community. We employ as theoretical bases Expectancy Theory, Goal Setting Theory, and literatures related with volunteers' motivation. This study conducts the email survey from participants of knowledge service community of NHN, a leading Korean online company. We find that high-performing participants have individual ability, goal congruence, and the greater level of effort motivated by personal or collective functions. 0 0
Information product creation through open source encyclopedias Chitu Okoli ICC2009 - International Conference of Computing in Engineering, Science and Information English 2009 The same open source philosophy that has been traditionally applied to software development can be applied to the collaborative creation of non-software information products, such as encyclopedias, books, and dictionaries. Most notably, the eight-year-old Wikipedia is a comprehensive general encyclopedia, comprising over 12 million articles in over 200 languages. It becomes increasingly important to rigorously investigate the workings of the open source process to understand its benefits and motivations. This paper presents a research program funded by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada with the following objectives: (1) Survey open source encyclopedia participants to understand their motivations for participating and their demographic characteristics, and compare them with participants in traditional open source software projects; (2) investigate the process of open source encyclopedia development in a live community to understand how their motivations interact in the open source framework to create quality information products. 0 0
Using user-centered design to discover motivation and priorities in an established online community Elly Searle
Katie Derthick
Toni Ferro
Morgan J.T.
Mark Zachry
SIGDOC'09 - Proceedings of the 27th ACM International Conference on Design of Communication English 2009 This poster presents our work using a face-to-face user-centered design method to inform the design of a reputation visualization for an established online community. The benefits of conducting an offline group session with online community members included insights into motivation and priorities, an understanding of community norms, and a member check on previous findings. 0 0
Voluntary Engagement in an Open Web-Based Encyclopedia: Wikipedians and Why They Do It Joachim Schroer
Guido Hertel
English 2009 The online encyclopedia Wikipedia is a highly successful “open content” project, written and maintained completely by volunteers. Little is known, however, about the motivation of these volunteers. Results from an online survey among 106 contributors to the German Wikipedia project are presented. Both motives derived from social sciences (perceived benefits, identification with Wikipedia, etc.) as well as perceived task characteristics (autonomy, skill variety, etc.) were assessed as potential predictors of contributors' satisfaction and self-reported engagement. Satisfaction ratings were particularly determined by perceived benefits, identification with the Wikipedia community, and task characteristics. Engagement was particularly determined by high tolerance for opportunity costs and by task characteristics, the latter effect being partially mediated by intrinsic motivation. Relevant task characteristics for contributors' engagement and satisfaction were perceived autonomy, task significance, skill variety, and feedback. Models from social sciences and work psychology complemented each other by suggesting that favorable task experiences might counter perceived opportunity costs in Wikipedia contributors. Moreover, additional data reported by Wikipedia authors indicate the importance of generativity motives. 0 2
The motivational arc of massive virtual collaboration Kevin Crowston
Isabelle Fagnot
IFIP WG 9.5 Working Conference on Virtuality and Society: Massive Virtual Communities English 1 July 2008 Massive virtual collaborations (MVC) involve large numbers of mostly unpaid

contributors collectively creating new content. Wikipedia is the most dramatic example of MVC; smaller-scale examples include blogs and discussion groups and free/libre open source software (FLOSS) projects. In this paper, we propose a model of motivations for contribution to MVC that integrates various theoretical perspectives to extend prior work. Specifically, we distinguish three different levels of contribution to projects (initial, sustained and meta) and capture the dynamic and recursive effects of contributions on emergent

individual and project states.
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Exploring motivations for contributing to open source initiatives: The roles of contribution context and personal values Shaul Oreg
Oded Nov
Computers in Human Behavior English 2008 We explore contextual and dispositional correlates of the motivation to contribute to open source initiatives. We examine how the context of the open source project, and the personal values of contributors, are related to the types of motivations for contributing. A web-based survey was administered to 300 contributors in two prominent open source contexts: software and content. As hypothesized, software contributors placed a greater emphasis on reputation-gaining and self-development motivations, compared with content contributors, who placed a greater emphasis on altruistic motives. Furthermore, the hypothesized relationships were found between contributors' personal values and their motivations for contributing. 0 1
Incentives to Contribute in Online Collaboration: Wikipedia as Collective Action Benjamin K. Johnson International Communication Association, 58th Annual Conference, Montreal, Quebec 2008 Wikipedia is an online encyclopedia created by volunteers, and is an example of how developments in software platforms and the low cost of sharing and coordinating on the Internet are leading to a new paradigm of creative collaboration on a massive scale. The research presented here addresses the questions of why individuals choose to give away their time and effort and how the challenges associated with collective action are addressed by Wikipedia’s technologies, organization, and community. Interviews with editors of the encyclopedia were used to identify what personal gains and other motivations compel contributors, what challenges to collaboration exist, and what technological and social structures aid their ability to create a freely available repository of human knowledge. The paper suggests that the free encyclopedia is at once both a traditional instance of collective action requiring coordination and strong incentives and an instance of networked public goods that result through boundary crossing made possibly through extremely low barriers to sharing. 0 0
Motivating and enabling organizational memory with a workgroup Wiki Munson S.A. WikiSym 2008 - The 4th International Symposium on Wikis, Proceedings English 2008 Workgroups can struggle with remembering past projects and sharing this information with other groups in the organization. In a case study of the deployment of MediaWiki as a publishing tool for building organizational memory, group members' motivation to document past projects increased. A browsable collection of past projects allowed for discovery of past work, building the reputation of individuals and the workgroup, and development of transactive memory within the workgroup. The "anyone can edit" feature, frequently touted as the main benefit of wikis, had both benefits and drawbacks in this implementation. Group members did not feel comfortable making substantial edits to others' content but did occasionally use the wiki to coauthor content and also categorize and link to others' content and fix typos, particularly when asked to help. 0 0
Online motivational factors: Incentives for participation and contribution in Wikipedia. Sheizaf Rafaeli and Yaron Ariel Psychological aspects of cyberspace: Theory, research, applications Cambridge
UK: Cambridge University Press.
2008 0 0
Personality characteristics of wikipedia members Amichai-Hamburger Y.
Lamdan N.
Madiel R.
Hayat T.
Cyberpsychology and Behavior English 2008 Wikipedia is an online, free access, volunteer-contributed encyclopedia. This article focuses on the Wikipedians' (Wikipedia users) personality characteristics, studying Wikipedians' conceptions of Real-Me and BFI dimensions. To survey these aspects, we posted links to two online web questionnaires; one was targeted at Wikipedians and the second to non-Wikipedia users. One hundred and thirty-nine subjects participated in the study, of which 69 were active Wikipedia members. It was found that Wikipedia members locate their real me on the Internet more frequently as compared to non-Wikipedia members. Variance analysis revealed significant differences between Wikipedia members and non-Wikipedia members in agreeableness, openness, and conscientiousness, which were lower for the Wikipedia members. An interaction was found between Wikipedia membership and gender: introverted women were more likely to be Wikipedia members as compared with extroverted women. The results of this study are discussed with special emphasis on the understanding of the motivators of Wikipedia members. 0 2
Voluntary engagement in an open web-based encyclopedia: From reading to contributing Guido Hertel Joachim Schroer 10th International General Online Research Conference, Hamburg, Germany 2008 Extending earlier research on highly active Wikipedia contributors (Schroer & Hertel, 2007), a longitudinal study was conducted to explore why Wikipedia readers would start to actively engage for Wikipedia. Online-survey data (N = 256) were analyzed using PLS path modeling. Results revealed perceptions of costs-benefits, expected task enjoyment, and perceived instrumentality of personal contributions as main predictors of the intention to contribute. Active contributions 6 months later depended predominantly on costs-benefits and instrumentality perceptions, typically triggered by incomplete or incorrect Wikipedia articles in one’s own field of expertise. The importance of Open Source ideals, i.e. the idea of free access to knowledge for everyone, affected neither the intention to contribute, nor active contributions 6 months later. Wikipedia readers, however, considered these ideals as important as do Wikipedia authors. 0 0
Social rewarding in wiki systems - motivating the community Bernhard Hoisl
Wolfgang Aigner
Silvia Miksch
Lecture Notes in Computer Science English 2007 Online communities have something in common: their success rise and fall with the participation rate of active users. In this paper we focus on social rewarding mechanisms that generate benefits for users in order to achieve a higher contribution rate in a wiki system. In an online community, social rewarding is in the majority of cases based on accentuation of the most active members. As money cannot be used as a motivating factor others like status, power, acceptance, and glory have to be employed. We explain different social rewarding mechanisms which aim to meet these needs of users. Furthermore, we implemented a number of methods within the MediaWiki system, where social rewarding criteria are satisfied by generating a ranking of most active members. 0 0
Understanding member motivation for contributing to different types of virtual communities: A proposed framework Moore T.D.
Serva M.A.
Proceedings of the 2007 ACM SIGMIS Computer Personnel Research Conference: The Global Information Technology Workforce, SIGMIS-CPR 2007 English 2007 Previous research indicates that the type and purpose of a virtual community (wiki, blog, and Internet Forum) may play a role in determining a member's motivation for contribution to a virtual community, but does not fully explore this idea. This study aggregates the disparate ideas and terminology of previous research on virtual communities and presents a more parsimonious grouping of fourteen motivational factors. These fourteen factors provide a framework for examining what drives members to contribute. Two preliminary studies offer some support for the framework. Copyright 2007 ACM. 0 0
What motivates Wikipedians? Oded Nov Communications of the ACM English 2007 In order to increase and enhance user-generated content contributions, it is important to understand the factors that lead people to freely share their time and knowledge with others. 0 7
Intrinsic motivation of open content contributions: The case of wikipedia Xiaoquan (Michael) Zhang
Feng Zhu
Workshop on Information Systems and Economics English December 2006 0 0
Motivations of contributors to Wikipedia Stacey Kuznetsov SIGCAS English 2006 This paper aims to explain why people are motivated to contribute to the Wikipedia project. A comprehensive analysis of the motivations of Wikipedians is conducted using the iterative methodology developed by Batya Friedman and Peter Kahn in Value Sensitive Design and Information Systems and co-developed by Nissenbaum and Friedman in Bias in Computer Systems. The Value Sensitive Design (VSD) approach consists of three stages: Empirical Investigation, Conceptual Investigation, and Technical Investigation. During the empirical phase, motivations of the contributors to Wikipedia are identified through analysis of data from two published surveys and a pilot survey conducted at New York University. The underlying values behind these motivations are then defined in the conceptual phase of the study. Finally, a technical investigation is conducted in order to determine how features of the Wiki technology support and facilitate these values. 0 2
Working for free? Motivations of participating in open source projects Alexander Hars
Shaosong Ou
Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences English 2001 The success of the Linux operating system has demonstrated the viability of an alternative form of software development – open source software – that challenges traditional assumptions about software markets. Understanding what drives open source developers to participate in open source projects is crucial for assessing the impact of open source software. This article identifies two broad types of motivations that account for their participation in open source projects. The first category includes internal factors such as intrinsic motivation and altruism, and the second category focuses on external rewards such as expected future returns and personal needs. This article also reports the results of a survey administered to open source programmers. 0 0