2009

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This is a list of 3 events celebrated and 492 publications published in 2009.

Events

Name City Country DateThis property is a special property in this wiki.
RecentChangesCamp 2009 Portland United States 20 February 2009
WikiSym 2009 Orlando United States 25 October 2009
Wikimania 2009 Buenos Aires Argentina 26 August 2009


Publications

Title Author(s) Keyword(s) Published in Language Abstract R C
"All You Can Eat" Ontology-Building: Feeding Wikipedia to Cyc Samuel Sarjant
Catherine Legg
Michael Robinson
Olena Medelyan
Cyc
Wikipedia
Ontology
Web mining
WI-IAT English In order to achieve genuine web intelligence, building some kind of large general machine-readable conceptual scheme (i.e. ontology) seems inescapable. Yet the past 20 years have shown that manual ontology-building is not practicable. The recent explosion of free user-supplied knowledge on the Web has led to great strides in automatic ontology-building, but quality-control is still a major issue. Ideally one should automatically build onto an already intelligent base. We suggest that the long-running Cyc project is able to assist here. We describe methods used to add 35K new concepts mined from Wikipedia to collections in ResearchCyc entirely automatically. Evaluation with 22 human subjects shows high precision both for the new concepts’ categorization, and their assignment as individuals or collections. Most importantly we show how Cyc itself can be leveraged for ontological quality control by ‘feeding’ it assertions one by one, enabling it to reject those that contradict its other knowledge. 0 0
"Language Is the Skin of My Thought": Integrating Wikipedia and AI to Support a Guillotine Player Pasquale Lops
Pierpaolo Basile
Marco Gemmis
Giovanni Semeraro
English 0 0
"edit this page": the socio-technological infrastructure of a wikipedia article Shaun P. Slattery Activity theory
Infrastructure
Wiki
Wikipedia
SIGDOC English 0 0
3DWiki: The 3D Wiki Engine Jacek Jankowski
Marek Jozwowicz
Yolanda Cobos
Bill McDaniel
Stefan Decker
2LIP
3D Wiki
3D hypermedia
3D web
WikiSym English 0 0
A Brief Review of Studies of Wikipedia in Peer-Reviewed Journals Chitu Okoli Third International Conference on Digital Society English Since its establishment in 2001, Wikipedia, "the free encyclopedia that anyone can edit" has become a cultural icon of the unlimited possibilities of the World Wide Web. Thus, it has become a serious subject of scholarly study to objectively and rigorously understand it as a phenomenon. This paper reviews studies of Wikipedia that have been published in peer-reviewed journals. Among the wealth of studies reviewed, major sub-streams of research covered include: how and why Wikipedia works; assessments of the reliability of its content; using it as a data source for various studies; and applications of Wikipedia in different domains of endeavour. 25 1
A Composite Calculation for Author Activity in Wikis: Accuracy Needed Claudia Muller-Birn
Janette Lehmann
Sabina Jeschke
WI-IAT English 0 0
A Jury of Your Peers: Quality, Experience and Ownership in Wikipedia Aaron Halfaker
Aniket Kittur
Robert E. Kraut
John Riedl
WikiWork
Wikipedia
Experience
Ownership
Peer
Peer review
Quality
WikiSym English Wikipedia is a highly successful example of what mass collaboration in an informal peer review system can accomplish. In this paper, we examine the role that the quality of the contributions, the experience of the contributors and the ownership of the content play in the decisions over which contributions become part of Wikipedia and which ones are rejected by the community. We introduce and justify a versatile metric for automatically measuring the quality of a contribution. We find little evidence that experience helps contributors avoid rejection. In fact, as they gain experience, contributors are even more likely to have their work rejected. We also find strong evidence of ownership behaviors in practice despite the fact that ownership of content is discouraged within Wikipedia. 0 3
A Jury of your Peers: Quality, Experience and Ownership in Wikipedia Aaron Halfaker
Aniket Kittur
Robert E. Kraut
John Riedl
Wikipedia peer peer review wikiwork experience ownership quality WikiSym2009: Symposium on Wikis and Open Collaboration Wikipedia is a highly successful example of what mass collaboration in an informal peer review system can accomplish. In this paper, we examine the role that the quality of the contributions, the experience of the contributors and the ownership of the content play in the decisions over which contributions become part of Wikipedia and which ones are rejected by the community. We introduce and justify a versatile metric for automatically measuring the quality of a contribution. We find little evidence that experience helps contributors avoid rejection. In fact, as they gain experience, contributors are even more likely to have their work rejected. We also find strong evidence of ownership behaviors in practice despite the fact that ownership of content is discouraged within Wikipedia. 0 5
A Persian Web Page Classifier Applying a Combination of Content-Based and Context-Based Features M. Farhoodi
A. Yari
M. Mahmoudi
International Journal of Information Studies There are many automatic classification methods and algorithms that have been propose for content-based or context-based features of web pages. In this paper we analyze these features and try to exploit a combination of features to improve categorization accuracy of Persian web page classification. In this work we have suggested a linear combination of different features and adjusting the optimum weighing during application. To show the outcome of this approach, we have conducted various experiments on a dataset consisting of all pages belonging to Persian Wikipedia in the field of computer. These experiments demonstrate the usefulness of using content-based and context-based web page features in a linear weighted combination. 0 0
A Practical Model for Conceptual Comparison Using a Wiki David Webster
Jie Xu
Darren Mundy
Paul Warren
Conceptual comparison
Conceptual context
Contextual relations
Semantic relevance
ICALT English 0 0
A Semantic Wiki Based Light-Weight Web Application Model Jie Bao
Li Ding
Rui Huang
Paul R. Smart
Dave Braines
Gareth Jones
ASWC English 0 0
A Wiki: one tool for communication, collaboration, and collection of documentation Shawn M. Plummer
Laurie J. Fox
DokuWiki
SUNY Geneseo
Wiki
Collaboration
Confluence
Documentation
SIGUCCS English 0 0
A aprovação de sentidos enunciados na "Wikipédia: a enciclopédia livre" Paulo Henrique Souto Maior Serrano Anais do SILEL Portuguese 2 0
A community-curated consensual annotation that is continuously updated: the Bacillus subtilis centred wiki SubtiWiki Lope A. Flórez
Sebastian F. Roppel
Arne G. Schmeisky
Christoph R. Lammers
Jörg Stülke
Database : the journal of biological databases and curation English Bacillus subtilis is the model organism for Gram-positive bacteria, with a large amount of publications on all aspects of its biology. To facilitate genome annotation and the collection of comprehensive information on B. subtilis, we created SubtiWiki as a community-oriented annotation tool for information retrieval and continuous maintenance. The wiki is focused on the needs and requirements of scientists doing experimental work. This has implications for the design of the interface and for the layout of the individual pages. The pages can be accessed primarily by the gene designations. All pages have a similar flexible structure and provide links to related gene pages in SubtiWiki or to information in the World Wide Web. Each page gives comprehensive information on the gene, the encoded protein or RNA as well as information related to the current investigation of the gene/protein. The wiki has been seeded with information from key publications and from the most relevant general and B. subtilis-specific databases. We think that SubtiWiki might serve as an example for other scientific wikis that are devoted to the genes and proteins of one organism.Database URL: The wiki can be accessed at http://subtiwiki.uni-goettingen.de/ 0 0
A comparison of privacy issues in collaborative workspaces and social networks Martin Pekarek
Stefanie Potzsch
Identity in the Information Society 0 0
A graph-based approach to mining multilingual word associations from wikipedia Zheng Ye
Xiangji Huang
Hongfei Lin
CLIR
Association dictionary
Wikipedia
SIGIR English 0 0
A nomadic wiki for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Hoa Ha Duong
Isabelle Demeure
CTS English 0 0
A quantitative approach to the use of the Wikipedia Antonio J. Reinoso
Felipe Ortega
Jesús M. González-Barahona
Gregorio Robles
English This paper presents a quantitative study of the use of the Wikipedia system by its users (both readers and editors), with special focus on the identification of time and kind-of-use patterns, characterization of traffic and workload, and comparative analysis of different language editions. The basis of the study is the filtering and analysis of a large sample of the requests directed to the Wikimedia systems for six weeks, each in a month from November 2007 to April 2008. In particular, we have considered the twenty most frequently visited language editions of the Wikipedia, identifying for each access to any of them the corresponding namespace (sets of resources with uniform semantics), resource name (article names, for example) and action (editions, submissions, history reviews, save operations, etc.). The results found include the identification of weekly and daily patterns, and several correlations between several actions on the articles. In summary, the study shows an overall picture of how the most visited language editions of the Wikipedia are being accessed by their users. 0 0
A semantic MediaWiki-empowered terminology registry Qing Zou
Wei Fan
Knowledge organization systems
Metadata registry
Semantic wiki
Terminology registry
DCMI English 0 0
A spatial hypertext wiki for architectural knowledge management Proceedings - International Conference on Software Engineering English 0 0
A wicked encyclopaedia. Des Spence BMJ: British Medical Journal :b3814 The author reflects on the use of Wikipedia, a free online encyclopedia by doctors and patients. He states that Wikipedia is the common source of doctors and patients when searching for medical topics. According to research, half of doctors have used Wikipedia and the site is increasingly becoming the standard medical textbook. The author also mentions a debate on whether there should be a specific medical Wiki. 0 0
A wiki as intranet: A critical analysis using the Delone and McLean model Online Information Review English 0 0
Addressing gaps in knowledge while reading Chris Jordan
Carolyn Watters
Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology Reading is a common everyday activity for most of us. In this article, we examine the potential for using Wikipedia to fill in the gaps in one's own knowledge that may be encountered while reading. If gaps are encountered frequently while reading, then this may detract from the reader's final understanding of the given document. Our goal is to increase access to explanatory text for readers by retrieving a single Wikipedia article that is related to a text passage that has been highlighted. This approach differs from traditional search methods where the users formulate search queries and review lists of possibly relevant results. This explicit search activity can be disruptive to reading. Our approach is to minimize the user interaction involved in finding related information by removing explicit query formulation and providing a single relevant result. To evaluate the feasibility of this approach, we first examined the effectiveness of three contextual algorithms for retrieval. To evaluate the effectiveness for readers, we then developed a functional prototype that uses the text of the abstract being read as context and retrieves a single relevant Wikipedia article in response to a passage the user has highlighted. We conducted a small user study where participants were allowed to use the prototype while reading abstracts. The results from this initial study indicate that users found the prototype easy to use and that using the prototype significantly improved their stated understanding and confidence in that understanding of the academic abstracts they read. 2009 {ASIS} T. 0 0
Amplifying Community Content Creation Using Mixed-Initiative Information Extraction Raphael Hoffmann
Saleema Amershi
Kayur Patel
Fei Wu
James Fogarty
Daniel S. Weld
English 0 0
An Enhanced Wiki for Requirements Engineering David de Almeida Ferreira
Alberto Manuel Rodrigues da Silva
Software Requirements
Software Engineering Tools and Methods
SEAA English 0 1
An Exploration on On-line Mass Collaboration: focusing on its motivation structure. Jae Kyung Ha
Yong Kim-Hak
International Journal of Social Sciences The Internet has become an indispensable part of our lives. Witnessing recent web-based mass collaboration, e.g. Wikipedia, people are questioning whether the Internet has made fundamental changes to the society or whether it is merely a hyperbolic fad. It has long been assumed that collective action for a certain goal yields the problem of free-riding, due to its non-exclusive and non-rival characteristics. Then, thanks to recent technological advances, the on-line space experienced the following changes that enabled it to produce public goods: 1) decrease in the cost of production or coordination 2) externality from networked structure 3) production function which integrates both self-interest and altruism. However, this research doubts the homogeneity of on-line mass collaboration and argues that a more sophisticated and systematical approach is required. The alternative that we suggest is to connect the characteristics of the goal to the motivation. Despite various approaches, previous literature fails to recognize that motivation can be structurally restricted by the characteristic of the goal. First we draw a typology of on-line mass collaboration with 'the extent of expected beneficiary' and 'the existence of externality', and then we examine each combination of motivation using Benkler's framework. Finally, we explore and connect such typology with its possible dominant participating motivation. 0 0
An architecture to support intelligent user interfaces for Wikis by means of Natural Language Processing Johannes Hoffart
Torsten Zesch
Iryna Gurevych
Wiki
Content organization
Natural Language Processing
User interaction
WikiSym English 0 0
An empirical study of knowledge collaboration networks in virtual community: Based on wiki 2009 International Conference on Management Science and Engineering - 16th Annual Conference Proceedings, ICMSE 2009 English 0 0
An interactive semantic knowledge base unifying Wikipedia and HowNet Hongzhi Guo
Qingcai Chen
Lei Cui
Xiaolong Wang
HowNet
Fusion
Semantic analysis
Semantic knowledge base
Wikipedia
ICICS English 0 0
Analysing Wikipedia and gold-standard corpora for NER training Joel Nothman
Tara Murphy
James R. Curran
EACL English 0 0
Analysis of community structure in Wikipedia Dmitry Lizorkin
Olena Medelyan
Maria Grineva
English We present the results of a community detection analysis of the Wikipedia graph. Distinct communities in Wikipedia contain semantically closely related articles. The central topic of a community can be identified using PageRank. Extracted communities can be organized hierarchically similar to manually created Wikipedia category structure. 0 0
Analyzing collaborative learning activities in wikis using social network analysis Saskia Janina Kepp
Heidemarie Schorr
CSCL
Collaboration analysis
Social network analysis
Wiki
CHI EA English 0 0
Annotating wikipedia articles with semantic tags for structured retrieval Saravadee Sae Tan
Tang Enya Kong
Gian Chand Sodhy
Semantic markup
Structured retrieval
Wikipedia
SWSM English 0 0
Análisis de las contribuciones a un wiki para la evaluación web de competencias Juan Manuel Dodero-Beardo
Gregorio Rodríguez-Gómez
María S. Ibarra-Sáiz
Wiki
Evaluación de competencias
Evaluación electrónica
Spanish El uso de wikis y aplicaciones web de autoría compartida es la expresión más actual de una forma de aprendizaje colaborativo donde se asigna a un grupo de estudiantes la elaboración de un documento donde aprendan a realizar análisis de un problema y compartirlos con los compañeros. Este trabajo parte de la hipótesis de que en el proceso de realización de dicho trabajo se ponen de manifiesto una serie de competencias entre los participantes. Para evaluar dichas competencias se describe un método de análisis gráfico que, analizando una serie de patrones propuestos sobre la contribución individual y grupal al wiki, pretende facilitar la detección de ciertas competencias genéricas. 4 2
Application of Wiki technology in literature retrieval of digital library 2009 Joint Conferences on Pervasive Computing, JCPC 2009 English 0 0
Are web-based informational queries changing? Chadwyn Tann
Mark Sanderson
Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology This brief communication describes the results of a questionnaire examining certain aspects of the Web-based information seeking practices of university students. The results are contrasted with past work showing that queries to Web search engines can be assigned to one of a series of categories: navigational, informational, and transactional. The survey results suggest that a large group of queries, which in the past would have been classified as informational, have become at least partially navigational. We contend that this change has occurred because of the rise of large Web sites holding particular types of information, such as Wikipedia and the Internet Movie Database. 0 0
Art history: a guide to basic research resources Chen
Ching-Jung
Collection Building The purpose of this paper is to present basic resources and practical strategies for undergraduate art history research. The paper is based on the author's experience as both an art librarian and instructor for a core requirement art history course. The plan detailed in this paper covers every step of the research process, from exploring the topic to citing the sources. The resources listed, which include subscription databases as well as public Web sites, are deliberately limited to a manageable number. Additional topics include defining the scope of inquiry and making appropriate use of Internet resources such as Wikipedia. The paper provides the academic librarian with clear guidance on basic research resources in art history. 0 0
Articles as Assignments --- Modalities and Experiences of Wikipedia Use in University Courses Klaus Wannemacher Constructivist Learning
Information Com petency
Media Literacy
Teaching Strategies
Web 2.0
Web-Based Learning
Wikipedia
ICWL English 0 0
Aspects to motivate users of a design engineering wiki to share their knowledge Proceedings of World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology English 0 0
Assessing the quality of Wikipedia articles with lifecycle based metrics Thomas Wöhner
Ralf Peters
WikiSym English The main feature of the free online-encyclopedia Wikipedia is the wiki-tool, which allows viewers to edit the articles directly in the web browser. As a weakness of this openness for example the possibility of manipulation and vandalism cannot be ruled out, so that the quality of any given Wikipedia article is not guaranteed. Hence the automatic quality assessment has been becoming a high active research field. In this paper we offer new metrics for an efficient quality measurement. The metrics are based on the lifecycles of low and high quality articles, which refer to the changes of the persistent and transient contributions throughout the entire life span. 0 2
Aufbau eines wissenschaftlichen Textcorpus auf der Basis der Daten der englischsprachigen Wikipedia Markus Fuchs University of Regensburg German With the growth in popularity over the last eight years, Wikipedia has become a very promising resource in academic studies. Some of its properties make it attractive for a wide range of research fields (information retrieval, information extraction, natural language processing, ...), e.g. free availability and up to date content. However, efficient and structured access to this information is not easy, as most of Wikipedia's contents are encoded in its own markup language (wikitext). And, unfortunately, there is no formal definition of wikitext, which makes parsing very difficult and burdensome. In this thesis, we present a system that lets the researcher automatically build a richly annotated corpus containing the information most commonly used in research projects. To this end, we built our own wikitext parser based on the original converter used by Wikipedia itself to convert wikitext into HTML. The system stores all data in a relational database, which allows for efficient access and extensive retrieval functionality. 0 0
Augmenting Wiki System for Collaborative EFL Reading by Digital Pen Annotations Chih-Kai Chang Wiki
Collaborative learning
English as foreign language
Digital pen
Annotation
ISUVR English 0 0
Auto-organização e processos editoriais na Wikipedia: uma análise à luz de Michel Debrun Carlos Frederico de Brito d’Andréa Anais Hipertexto 2009 Portuguese 8 0
Automated seeding of specialised wiki knowledgebases with BioKb Jonathan R. Manning
Ann Hedley
John J. Mullins
Donald R. Dunbar
English BACKGROUND: Wiki technology has become a ubiquitous mechanism for dissemination of information, and places strong emphasis on collaboration. We aimed to leverage wiki technology to allow small groups of researchers to collaborate around a specific domain, for example a biological pathway. Automatically gathered seed data could be modified by the group and enriched with domain specific information. RESULTS: We describe a software system, BioKb, implemented as a plugin for the TWiki engine, and designed to facilitate construction of a field-specific wiki containing collaborative and automatically generated content. Features of this system include: query of publicly available resources such as KEGG, iHOP and MeSH, to generate 'seed' content for topics; simple definition of structure for topics of different types via an administration page; and interactive incorporation of relevant PubMed references. An exemplar is shown for the use of this system, in the creation of the RAASWiki knowledgebase on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). RAASWiki has been seeded with data by use of BioKb, and will be the subject of ongoing development into an extensive knowledgebase on the RAAS. CONCLUSION: The BioKb system is available from http://www.bioinf.mvm.ed.ac.uk/twiki/bin/view/TWiki/BioKbPlugin as a plugin for the TWiki engine. 0 0
Automatic Content-based Categorization of Wikipedia Articles Zeno Gantner
Lars Schmidt-Thieme
English 0 0
Automatic quality assessment of content created collaboratively by web communities: a case study of Wikipedia Daniel H. Dalip
Marcos A. Gonçalves
Marco Cristo
Pável Calado
English The old dream of a universal repository containing all the human knowledge and culture is becoming possible through the Internet and the Web. Moreover, this is happening with the direct collaborative, participation of people. Wikipedia is a great example. It is an enormous repository of information with free access and edition, created by the community in a collaborative manner. However, this large amount of information, made available democratically and virtually without any control, raises questions about its relative quality. In this work we explore a significant number of quality indicators, some of them proposed by us and used here for the first time, and study their capability to assess the quality of Wikipedia articles. Furthermore, we explore machine learning techniques to combine these quality indicators into one single assessment judgment. Through experiments, we show that the most important quality indicators are the easiest ones to extract, namely, textual features related to length, structure and style. We were also able to determine which indicators did not contribute significantly to the quality assessment. These were, coincidentally, the most complex features, such as those based on link analysis. Finally, we compare our combination method with state-of-the-art solution and show significant improvements in terms of effective quality prediction. 0 2
Automatically generating Wikipedia articles: a structure-aware approach Christina Sauper
Regina Barzilay
ACL English 0 0
BOWiki: an ontology-based wiki for annotation of data and integration of knowledge in biology Robert Hoehndorf
Joshua Bacher
Michael Backhaus
Sergio Gregorio
Frank Loebe
Kay Prufer
Alexandr Uciteli
Johann Visagie
Heinrich Herre
Janet Kelso
English MOTIVATION:Ontology development and the annotation of biological data using ontologies are time-consuming exercises that currently require input from expert curators. Open, collaborative platforms for biological data annotation enable the wider scientific community to become involved in developing and maintaining such resources. However, this openness raises concerns regarding the quality and correctness of the information added to these knowledge bases. The combination of a collaborative web-based platform with logic-based approaches and Semantic Web technology can be used to address some of these challenges and concerns.RESULTS:We have developed the BOWiki, a web-based system that includes a biological core ontology. The core ontology provides background knowledge about biological types and relations. Against this background, an automated reasoner assesses the consistency of new information added to the knowledge base. The system provides a platform for research communities to integrate information and annotate data collaboratively.AVAILABILITY:The BOWiki and supplementary material is available at http://www.bowiki.net/. The source code is available under the GNU GPL from http://onto.eva.mpg.de/trac/BoWiki. 0 0
Bipartite networks of Wikipedia's articles and authors: a meso-level approach Rut Jesus
Martin Schwartz
Sune Lehmann
Wikipedia
Bicliques
Collaboration
Meso-level
WikiSym English This exploratory study investigates the bipartite network of articles linked by common editors in Wikipedia, 'The Free Encyclopedia that Anyone Can Edit'. We use the articles in the categories (to depth three) of Physics and Philosophy and extract and focus on significant editors (at least 7 or 10 edits per each article). We construct a bipartite network, and from it, overlapping cliques of densely connected articles and editors. We cluster these densely connected cliques into larger modules to study examples of larger groups that display how volunteer editors flock around articles driven by interest, real-world controversies, or the result of coordination in WikiProjects. Our results confirm that topics aggregate editors; and show that highly coordinated efforts result in dense clusters. 0 1
Building a Networked Environment in Wikis: The Evolving Phases of Collaborative Learning in a Wikibook Project Hong Lin
Kathleen Kelsey
Journal of Educational Computing Research English Wikis, when used as an open editing tool, can have profound and subtle effects on students' collaborative learning process. Hailed as a collaborative learning and writing tool, many questions remain regarding the pedagogical impacts of using wikis in the classroom. Do students feel comfortable editing each others' wiki articles? Do students learn collaboratively and construct knowledge for the community? What challenges did they experience in a networked environment? This study addressed these questions using qualitative methods, including multiple semi-structured interviews and student reflective journals, for analysis. The findings challenge idealistic hypotheses that wiki work, without careful design and implementation, is naturally beneficial. It was also found that collaborative writing and learning were the exception rather than the norm among participants in the early stages of wiki work. It is recommended that instructors provide highly supportive learning experiences to teach students how to use wikis and how to work collaboratively when implementing wikis to maximize the benefits of this emerging tool. 16 0
Building a Text Classifier by a Keyword and Wikipedia Knowledge Qiang Qiu
Yang Zhang
Junping Zhu
Wei Qu
Wikipedia
Keyword
Text classification
Unlabeled document
ADMA English 0 0
Building a semantic virtual museum: from Wiki to semantic Wiki using named entity recognition Alain Plantec
Vincent Ribaud
Vasudeva Varma
English In this paper, we describe an approach for creating semantic wiki pages from regular wiki pages, in the domain of scientific museums, using information extraction methods in general and named entity recognition in particular. We make use of a domain specific ontology called CIDOC-CRM as a base structure for representing and processing knowledge. We have described major components of the proposed approach and a three-step process involving name entity recognition, identifying domain classes using the ontology and establishing the properties for the entities in order to generate semantic wiki pages. Our initial evaluation of the prototype shows promising results in terms of enhanced efficiency and time and cost benefits. 0 0
CMIC@INEX 2008: Link-the-wiki track Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) English 0 0
CSIR at INEX 2008 link-the-wiki track Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) English 0 0
Capturing knowledge during a dynamically evolving R&D project: A particular application of wiki software International Journal of Knowledge, Culture and Change Management English 0 0
Classifying Tags using Open Content Resources Simon Overell
Börkur Sigurbjörnsson
Roelof van Zwol
English 0 0
Clustering Documents Using a Wikipedia-Based Concept Representation Anna Huang
David N. Milne
Eibe Frank
Ian H. Witten
English This paper shows how Wikipedia and the semantic knowledge it contains can be exploited for document clustering. We first create a concept-based document representation by mapping the terms and phrases within documents to their corresponding articles (or concepts) in Wikipedia. We also developed a similarity measure that evaluates the semantic relatedness between concept sets for two documents. We test the concept-based representation and the similarity measure on two standard text document datasets. Empirical results show that although further optimizations could be performed, our approach already improves upon related techniques. 0 0
Co-Ordinating Peace Research and Education in Australia: A Report on the Canberra Forum of 2 May, 2008. James Page International Review of Education / Internationale Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaft, , 02/03/2011 Information about several papers discussed during the Australian university teachers forum on peace and conflict studies in Canberra, Australian Capital Territory on May 2, 2008 is presented. The forum highlights the discussion on how to better organize and co-ordinate university-level peace education in Australia. It further features the issue concerning peace education through Wikipedia networking and innovative teaching methods. 0 0
Codifying collaborative knowledge: using Wikipedia as a basis for automated ontology learning Tao Guo
D.G. Schwartz
F. Burstein
H. Linger
Knowledge Management Research \& Practice In the context of knowledge management, ontology construction can be considered as a part of capturing of the body of knowledge of a particular problem domain. Traditionally, ontology construction assumes a tedious codification of the domain experts knowledge. In this paper, we describe a new approach to ontology engineering that has the potential of bridging the dichotomy between codification and collaboration turning to Web 2.0 technology. We propose to shift the primary source of ontology knowledge from the expert to socially emergent bodies of knowledge such as Wikipedia. Using Wikipedia as an example, we demonstrate how core terms and relationships of a domain ontology can be distilled from this socially constructed source. As an illustration, we describe how our approach achieved over 90\% conceptual coverage compared with Gold standard hand-crafted ontologies, such as Cyc. What emerges is not a folksonomy, but rather a formal ontology that has nonetheless found its roots in social knowledge. 0 0
Colaboração, edição, transparência: desafios e possibilidades de uma wikificação do jornalismo Carlos Frederico de Brito d’Andréa Metamorfoses jornalísticas 2: a reconfiguração da forma Portuguese 0 5
Collaboration, editing, transparency: challenges and possibilities of a wikification of journalism Carlos Frederico de Brito d’Andréa Wiki-journalism
Wikipedia
Editing
Collaborative journalism
Brazilian Journalism Research English This article discusses the possibilities and challenges of the incorporation of wikis in journalistic editorial offices, especially in the processes involving the drafting and editing of texts. The reflection takes into consideration a context marked by 1) continuous fragmented publication of information; 2) simplification and horizontal organization of journalistic routines, which directly impacts the figure of the editor (mainly in the media on the web); and 3) increasing public participation in the development of the news, with the mediation of professionals. “Wiki-journalism” practices on the Wikinews and Wikipedia sites and initiatives originating with print publications are presented and discussed, and based on them we distinguish two models, which differ in the degree of control of the process by the journalists. 9 0
Collaborative Ontology Construction Using Template-Based Wiki for Semantic Web Applications Sung-Kooc Lim
In-Young Ko
Collaborative Ontology Construction
Semantic wiki
Template
ICCET English 0 0
Collaborative authoring of biomedical terminologies using a semantic Wiki. AMIA ... Annual Symposium proceedings / AMIA Symposium. AMIA Symposium English 0 0
Collaborative web-publishing with a semantic wiki Studies in Computational Intelligence English 0 0
Collaborative wiki tagging Studies in Computational Intelligence English 0 0
Collective annotation of Wikipedia entities in web text Sayali Kulkarni
Amit Singh
Ganesh Ramakrishnan
Soumen Chakrabarti
English To take the first step beyond keyword-based search toward entity-based search, suitable token spans ("spots") on documents must be identified as references to real-world entities from an entity catalog. Several systems have been proposed to link spots on Web pages to entities in Wikipedia. They are largely based on local compatibility between the text around the spot and textual metadata associated with the entity. Two recent systems exploit inter-label dependencies, but in limited ways. We propose a general collective disambiguation approach. Our premise is that coherent documents refer to entities from one or a few related topics or domains. We give formulations for the trade-off between local spot-to-entity compatibility and measures of global coherence between entities. Optimizing the overall entity assignment is NP-hard. We investigate practical solutions based on local hill-climbing, rounding integer linear programs, and pre-clustering entities followed by local optimization within clusters. In experiments involving over a hundred manually-annotated Web pages and tens of thousands of spots, our approaches significantly outperform recently-proposed algorithms. 0 0
Comment: The wiki way in a hurry - The ICIS anecdote MIS Quarterly: Management Information Systems English 0 0
Comment: the wiki way in a hurry--the ICIS anecdote Dov Teeni MIS Q. English 0 0
Comment: where is the theory in wikis? Ann Majchrzak MIS Q. English 0 0
Comparing and merging versioned wiki pages Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing English 0 0
Comparing featured article groups and revision patterns correlations in Wikipedia G. Poderi First Monday Collaboratively written by thousands of people, Wikipedia produces entries which are consistent with criteria agreed by Wikipedians and of high quality. This article focuses on Wikipedia's featured articles and shows that not every contribution can be considered as being of equal quality. Two groups of articles are analysed by focusing on the edits distribution and the main editors' contribution. The research shows how these aspects of the revision patterns can change dependent upon the category to which the articles belong. 0 2
Comparison of middle school, high school and community college students' Wiki activity in Globaloria-West Virginia: (pilot year-two) Rebecca Reynolds
Idit Harel Caperton
Globaloria
Wiki
Computer-supported collaborative learning
Constructionism
Digital literacy
Game design
Serious games
Social media
Web 2.0
WikiSym English 0 0
Completing wikipedia's hyperlink structure through dimensionality reduction Robert West
Doina Precup
Joelle Pineau
Data mining
Graph mining
Link mining
Principal component analysis
Wikipedia
CIKM English 0 0
Computing semantic relatedness using structured information of Wikipedia Wang
Rui-Qin
Fan Kong-Sheng
Zhejiang Daxue Xuebao (Gongxue Ban)/Journal of Zhejiang University (Engineering Science) A novel semantic relatedness measurement technique based on the link information of Wikipedia was presented. Comparing with {WordNet} repository, Wikipedia has wider range, more comprehensive knowledge and faster update speed, which makes it become an ideal resource in semantic management. Unlike other Wikipedia based semantic relatedness computing approaches, the new technique uses only Wikipedia's link structures rather than its full text content, which avoids from burdensome text processing. During the process of relatedness computation, the positive effects of incoming links and outcoming links were taken into account, meanwhile the link number adjustment factor was considered to eliminate the bias. Using several widely used test sets of manual defined measures of semantic relatedness as bench-mark, the proposed method resulted in substantial improvement in the correlation of computed relatedness score with the human judgments comparing with the previous {WordNet-based} methods and other Wikipedia-based methods. 0 0
Concept vector extraction from Wikipedia category network Masumi Shirakawa
Kotaro Nakayama
Takahiro Hara
Shojiro Nishio
Wikipedia
Categorization
Concept vector
Web mining
ICUIMC English 0 0
Confessions of a Librarian or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love Google. CLAIRE B. GUNNELS
AMY SISSON
Community \& Junior College Libraries Have you ever stopped to think about life before Google? We will make the argument that Google is the first manifestation of Web 2.0, of the power and promise of social networking and the ubiquitous wiki. We will discuss the positive influence of Google and how Google and other social networking tools afford librarians leading-edge technologies and new opportunities to teach information literacy. Finally, we will include a top seven list of googlesque tools that no librarian should be without. 0 0
Conflict and consensus in the Chinese version of Wikipedia Liao
Han-Teng
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine It is not easy to initiate a new language version of Wikipedia. Although anyone can propose a new language version without financial cost, certain Wikipedia policies for establishing a new language version must be followed 30. Once approved and created, the new language version needs tools to facilitate writing and reading in the new language. Even if a team tackles these technical and linguistic issues, a nascent community has to then develop its own editorial and administrative policies and guidelines, sometimes by translating and ratifying the policies in another language version (usually English). Given that Wikipedia does not impose an universal set of editorial and administrative policies and guidelines, the cultural and political nature of such communities remains open-ended. 0 1
Conflicts in collaboration: a study of tensions in the process of collective writing on Web 2.0 Aline de Campos Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul - UFRGS Portuguese From the context of collaboration as a process of the collective intelligence (LÉVY, 2003) and wisdom of crowds (SUROWIECKI, 2006) this work aims to study the conflict as an important factor of these collective processes. The imbalances are part of human history, however, recurrently we find a purpose to see this issues as negative and of annihilation of relations, leaving aside the aspect of the potential impulsion to beneficial reconfiguration of the process in which it operates. An interesting practice in the study of conflicts in collaboration is the online collective writing. The independence of space and time and the multiplicity of voices that can focus on a project textual, opens space for negotiations, debates and tensions of various kinds. In addition, sometimes there is too optimistic view, which relieves the issues of structural, dynamics and behavior in the production of meaning and the conflict that may arise from it. In this sense, is questioned: what is the influence of conflicts in the process of online collective writing? This project, through theoretical and empirical research, seeks to answer this question in a communicational perspective, which takes into account the relationships and interactions beyond the harmony permanently assigned to these processes for various areas of knowledge. For the empirical verification are presented two collaborative projects of textual production: the Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, wide used and with popularity and the project of the Laboratory of Computer-mediated Interaction of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, the Co-dex, the social dictionary, environment created for concepts, reviews and biographies of the area of communication and information science. In both observations were made for systematic verification of the tensions from the interaction and collective production so that, together with the developed theoretical contribution, the guiding question of this work could be investigated. It is concluded that the conflicts that permeate the processes of collaborative production of meaning relate to aspects of a textual and relational order and that they are related and influence each other. It is believed that the tensions have strong relevance in the development of relations between the collaborators and building content to introduce imbalances needed for a "majorant reequilibration" (Piaget, 1977). 0 0
Consensus Choice for Reconciling Social Collaborations on Semantic Wikis Jason J. Jung
Ngoc Thanh Nguyen
Conflict resolution
Consensus theory
Semantic wiki
ICCCI English 0 0
Construction of a Domain Ontological Structure from Wikipedia Ontology learning
Wikipedia
STIL English 0 0
Construction of disambiguated Folksonomy ontologies using Wikipedia Noriko Tomuro
Andriy Shepitsen
People's Web English 0 0
Content hole search in community-type content using Wikipedia Akiyo Nadamoto
Eiji Aramaki
Takeshi Abekawa
Yohei Murakami
SNS
Blog
Community
Content hole search
IiWAS English 0 0
Contextual retrieval of single Wikipedia articles to support the reading of academic abstracts Christopher Jordan Dalhousie University (Canada) English Google style search engines are currently some of the most popular tools that people use when they are looking for information. There are a variety of reasons that people can have for conducting a search, although, these reasons can generally be distilled down to users being engaged in a task and developing an information need that impedes them from completing that task at a level which is satisfactory to them. The Google style search engine, however, is not always the most appropriate tool for every user task. In this thesis, our approach to search differs from the traditional search engine as we focus on providing support to users who are reading academic abstracts. When people do not understand a passage in the abstract they are reading, they often look for more detailed information or a definition. Presenting them with a list of possibly relevant search results, as a Google style search would, may not immediately meet this information need. In the case of reading, it is logical to hypothesize that userswould prefer to receive a single document containing the information that they need. Developed in this thesis are retrieval algorithms that use the abstract being read along with the passage that the user is interested in to retrieve a single highly related article from Wikipedia. The top performing algorithm from the experiments conducted in this thesis is able to retrieve an appropriate article 77\% of the time. This algorithm was deployed in a prototype reading support tool. {LiteraryMark,} in order to investigate the usefulness of such a tool. The results from the user experiment conducted in this thesis indicate that {LiteraryMark} is able to significantly improve the understanding and confidence levels of people reading abstracts. 0 0
Coordinating Curriculum Implementation Using Wiki-supported Graph Visualization Sonja Kabicher
Renate Motschnig-Pitrik
ICALT English 0 0
Corpus Exploitation from Wikipedia for Ontology Construction Gaoying Cui
Qin Lu
Wenjie Li
Yirong Chen
English 0 0
Cosmos: a Wiki data management system Qinyi Wu
Calton Pu
Danesh Irani
Wiki
Version control systems
WikiSym English 0 0
Creating "the Wikipedia of pros and cons" Brooks Lindsay Wiki
Debate
Deliberation
Dialogue
Encyclopedia
Politics
Pros and cons
WikiSym English 0 0
Creating Community through the Use of a Class Wiki Kirsten A. Johnson
Jamie Bartolino
Wiki
Classroom
Community building
OCSC English 0 0
Creating User Profiles Using Wikipedia Krishnan Ramanathan
Komal Kapoor
DMOZ
Evaluation
Hierarchy
Personalization
User modeling
User profiles
Wikipedia
ER English 0 0
Creating dynamic wiki pages with section-tagging D. Helic
A. Us Saeed
C. Trattner
Austria-forum
Section tagging
Wiki systems
Amount of information
New approaches
Online encyclopedia
Social bookmarking
Tag clouds
Tagging systems
CEUR Workshop Proceedings English Authoring and editing processes in wiki systems are often tedious. Sheer amount of information makes it difficult for authors to organize the related information in a way that is easily accessible and retrievable for future reference. Social bookmarking systems provide possibilities to tag and organize related resources that can be later retrieved by navigating in so-called tag clouds. Usually, tagging systems do not offer a possibility to tag sections of resources but only a resource as a whole. However, authors of new wiki pages are typically interested only in certain parts of other wiki pages that are related to their current editing process. This paper describes a new approach applied in a wiki-based online encyclopedia that allows authors to tag interesting wiki pages sections. The tags are then used to dynamically create new wiki pages out of tagged sections for further editing. 0 0
Creating user profiles using Wikipedia Komal Kapoor Krishnan Ramanathan Wikipedia
User profiles
User modeling
DMOZ
The 28th international conference on conceptual modeling (ER 2009), Gramado Brazil, Springer LNCS 5829 Creating user profiles is an important step in personalization. Many methods for user profile creation have been developed to date using different representations such as term vectors and concepts from an ontology like DMOZ. In this paper we propose and evaluate different methods for creating user profiles using Wikipedia as the representation. The key idea in our approach is to map documents to Wikipedia concepts at different levels of resolution: words, key phrases, sentences, paragraphs, the document summary and the entire document itself. We suggest a method for evaluating recall by pooling the relevant results from the different methods and evaluate our results for both precision and recall. We also suggest a novel method for profile evaluation by assessing the recall over a known ontological profile drawn from DMOZ. 0 0
Cross-cultural collaboration Wiki: evolving knowledge about international teamwork Nicole Schadewitz
Norhayati Zakaria
Cross-cultural collaboration
Design patterns
Wiki
IWIC English 0 0
Cross-cultural collaboration wiki - Evolving knowledge about international teamwork Proceedings of the 2009 ACM SIGCHI International Workshop on Intercultural Collaboration, IWIC'09 English 0 0
Cross-lingual Alignment and Completion of Wikipedia Templates Gosse Bouma
Sergio Duarte
Zahurul Islam
English 0 0
Crossing textual and visual content in different application scenarios Ah-Julien Pine
Marco Bressan
Stephane Clinchant
Gabriela Csurka
Yves Hoppenot
Jean Renders-Michel
Multimedia Tools and Applications This paper deals with multimedia information access. We propose two new approaches for hybrid text-image information processing that can be straightforwardly generalized to the more general multimodal scenario. Both approaches fall in the trans-media pseudo-relevance feedback category. Our first method proposes using a mixture model of the aggregate components, considering them as a single relevance concept. In our second approach, we define trans-media similarities as an aggregation of monomodal similarities between the elements of the aggregate and the new multimodal object. We also introduce the monomodal similarity measures for text and images that serve as basic components for both proposed trans-media similarities. We show how one can frame a large variety of problem in order to address them with the proposed techniques: image annotation or captioning, text illustration and multimedia retrieval and clustering. Finally, we present how these methods can be integrated in two applications: a travel blog assistant system and a tool for browsing the Wikipedia taking into account the multimedia nature of its content. 2008 Springer {Science+Business} Media, {LLC. 0 1
Crosslanguage retrieval based on Wikipedia statistics Andreas Juffinger
Roman Kern
Michael Granitzer
CLEF English 0 0
Cybersuicide and the adolescent population: challenges of the future? Ria Birbal
Hari D Maharajh
Risa Birbal
Maria Clapperton
Johnathan Jarvis
Anushka Ragoonath
Kali Uppalapati
International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health Cybersuicide is a term used in reference to suicide and its ideations on the Internet. Cybersuicide is associated with websites that lure vulnerable members of society and empower them with various methods and approaches to deliberate self-harm. Ease of accessibility to the Internet and the rate at which information is dispersed contribute to the promotion of 'offing' one's self which is particularly appealing to adolescents. This study aims to explore this phenomenon, which seems to be spreading across generations, cultures, and races. Information and articles regarding Internet suicide and other terminology, as well as sub-classifications concerning this new form of suicide, were reviewed. Through search engines such as Google, Yahoo and Wikipedia, we investigated the differentiations between 'web cam' suicide, 'net suicide packs', sites that merely offer advice on how to commit suicide and sites that are essential in providing the means of performing the act. Additionally, materials published in scientific journals and data published by the Public Health Services, Centers for Disease Control, and materials from private media agencies were reviewed. Resources were also sourced from The Faculty of Medical Sciences Library, {UWI} at Mt. Hope. Cybersuicide is a worldwide problem among adolescents and a challenge of the future. 0 0
DBpedia - A crystallization point for the Web of Data Christian Bizer
Jens Lehmann
Georgi Kobilarov
Sören Auer
Christian Becker
Richard Cyganiak
Sebastian Hellmann
Journal of Web Semantics The {DBpedia} project is a community effort to extract structured information from Wikipedia and to make this information accessible on the Web. The resulting {DBpedia} knowledge base currently describes over 2.6 million entities. For each of these entities, {DBpedia} defines a globally unique identifier that can be dereferenced over the Web into a rich {RDF} description of the entity, including human-readable definitions in 30 languages, relationships to other resources, classifications in four concept hierarchies, various facts as well as data-level links to other Web data sources describing the entity. Over the last year, an increasing number of data publishers have begun to set data-level links to {DBpedia} resources, making {DBpedia} a central interlinking hub for the emerging Web of Data. Currently, the Web of interlinked data sources around {DBpedia} provides approximately 4.7 billion pieces of information and covers domains such as geographic information, people, companies, films, music, genes, drugs, books, and scientific publications. This article describes the extraction of the {DBpedia} knowledge base, the current status of interlinking {DBpedia} with other data sources on the Web, and gives an overview of applications that facilitate the Web of Data around {DBpedia.} 2009 Elsevier {B.V.} All rights reserved. 0 0
DBpedia Live Extraction Sebastian Hellmann
Claus Stadler
Jens Lehmann
Sören Auer
English 0 0
DBpedia – A Crystallization Point for the Web of Data Christian Bizer
Jens Lehmann
Georgi Kobilarov
Sören Auer
Christian Becker
Richard Cyganiak
Sebastian Hellmann
Web of data
Linked data
Knowledge Extraction
Wikipedia
RDF
Journal of Web Semantics: Science, Services and Agents on the World Wide Web English The DBpedia project is a community effort to extract structured information from Wikipedia and to make this information accessible on the Web. The resulting DBpedia knowledge base currently describes over 2.6 million entities. For each of these entities, DBpedia defines a globally unique identifier that can be dereferenced over the Web into a rich RDF description of the entity, including human-readable definitions in 30 languages, relationships to other resources, classifications in four concept hierarchies, various facts as well as data-level links to other Web data sources describing the entity. Over the last year, an increasing number of data publishers have begun to set data-level links to DBpedia resources, making DBpedia a central interlinking hub for the emerging Web of data. Currently, the Web of interlinked data sources around DBpedia provides approximately 4.7 billion pieces of information and covers domains such as geographic information, people, companies, films, music, genes, drugs, books, and scientific publications. This article describes the extraction of the DBpedia knowledge base, the current status of interlinking DBpedia with other data sources on the Web, and gives an overview of applications that facilitate the Web of Data around DBpedia. 0 0
Decentralization in Wikipedia Governance Andrea Forte
Vanesa Larco
Amy Bruckman
English How does "self-governance" happen in Wikipedia? Through in-depth interviews with 20 individuals who have held a variety of responsibilities in the English-language Wikipedia, we obtained rich descriptions of how various forces produce and regulate social structures on the site. Although Wikipedia is sometimes portrayed as lacking oversight, our analysis describes Wikipedia as an organization with highly refined policies, norms, and a technological architecture that supports organizational ideals of consensus building and discussion. We describe how governance on the site is becoming increasingly decentralized as the community grows and how this is predicted by theories of commons-based governance developed in offline contexts. We also briefly examine local governance structures called WikiProjects through the example of WikiProject Military History, one of the oldest and most prolific projects on the site. 0 0
Deploying PHP applications on IBM DB2 in the cloud: MediaWiki as a case study Leons Petrazickis CASCON English 0 0
Description of Some Spontaneus Species and the Possibilities uf Use Them in the Rocky Gardens B. Erzsebet
C. Maria
Z. Dumitru
D. Adelina
Z. Adrian
S. Georgeta
B. Mihai
Journal of Plant Development, 0 0
Design Alternatives for a MediaWiki to Support Collaborative Writing in Higher Education Classes Sumonta Kasemvilas
Lorne Olfman
Awareness
Collaborative writing
Constructivist learning
Design science research
Talk page
Evaluation
MediaWiki
Project management
Web 2.0
Issues in Informing Science and Information Technology English Constructivist learning mechanisms such as collaborative writing have emerged as a result of the development of Web 2.0 technologies. We define the term mandatory collaborative writing to describe a writing activity where the group has a firm deadline. Our study focuses on how a wiki can fully support mandatory group writing. The motivation of this design science research study emerges from a graduate Knowledge Management class assignment to write a wiki book. The project outcome shows that the wiki instance used for the project, MediaWiki, could better facilitate the process with a set of extensions that support discussion, evaluation, and project management. We outline designs for these mechanisms: 1) a discussion mechanism that changes the way users discuss content on a wiki page and increases group awareness; 2) an evaluation mechanism that provides a tool for the instructor to monitor and assess students’ performance; and 3) a project management tool that increases awareness of the status of each component of the writing project and provides an overall summary of the project. A demonstration of the principles to a focus group provided a basic proof of the validity of these mechanisms. 16 1
Designing wikis for collaborative learning and knowledge-building in higher education Swapna Kumar CSCL English 0 0
Detector y corrector automático de ediciones maliciosas en Wikipedia Emilio J. Rodríguez-Posada Wikipedia
Vandalism
Pattern
Spanish El proyecto desarrolla AVBOT (acrónimo de Anti-Vandalism BOT), un programa que detecta y corrige automáticamente ediciones maliciosas en Wikipedia en español. Está programado en Python y utiliza las librerías pywikipediabot y python-irclib. 0 0
Developing semantic web applications with the onto wiki framework Studies in Computational Intelligence English 0 0
Dialogue through wikis: A pilot exploration of dialogic public relations and wiki websites C. A Hickerson
S. R Thompson
PRism Online PR Journal 0 0
Did you put it on the wiki?: information sharing through wikis in interdisciplinary design collaboration Ammy J. Phuwanartnurak English Interdisciplinary design is challenging, in large measure, because of the difficulty in communicating and coordinating across disciplines. Team members from different disciplines may view and solve the same problem from different perspectives, with their own unique method and language, which may create barriers to information sharing. Wikis, in particular, have gained popularity as a collaborative tool and have been claimed to support collaboration and information sharing. Despite the increasing use of wikis in design projects, there has been little research attention to how wikis are actually used by design teams. This paper describes a field study of two interdisciplinary design teams, seeking to discover how wikis support information sharing in software development projects. The study provides empirical evidence on the use of wikis in interdisciplinary design work, which will be used to develop guidelines on the effective use of wikis to support interdisciplinary design collaboration. 0 0
Digital Literacies. A Tale of Two Tasks: Editing in the Era of Digital Literacies Chandler-Olcott
Kelly
Journal of Adolescent \& Adult Literacy This article argues that editing in the era of digital literacies is a complex, collaborative endeavor that requires a sophisticated awareness of audience and purpose and a knowledge of multiple conventions for conveying meaning and ensuring accuracy. It compares group editing of an article about the New York Yankees baseball team on Wikipedia, the popular online encyclopedia, to the decontextualized proofreading task required of seventh graders on a state-level examination. It concludes that literacy instruction in schools needs to prepare students for the multiple dimensions of editing in both print and online environments, which means teaching them to negotiate meanings with others, not merely to correct surface-feature errors. {(Contains} 1 figure.) 0 0
Directions for exploiting asymmetries in multilingual Wikipedia Elena Filatova CLIAWS3 English 0 0
Domain Knowledge Wiki for Eliciting Requirements Takanori Ugai
Kouji Aoyama
MARK English 0 0
DuPont Scientist Accused of Stealing Company's Trade Secrets Robert F. Service Science 0 0
DynaTable: A wiki extension for structured data WikiSym English 0 1
Dynamic collaboration: a personal reflection D. Aron Journal of Information Technology This paper explores the nature of, and possibilities arising from, dynamic collaboration, where large numbers of people can collaborate on an evolving set of initiatives, without prior knowledge of each other. It references early examples of dynamic collaboration including Topcoder, Innocentive, Zopa, and Wikipedia. It then speculates about the future of dynamic collaboration. 0 0
E-Learning in the Philippines: Trends, Directions, and Challenges Pena-Melinda M. Dela Bandalaria
Pena-Bandalaria
Melinda M. Dela
International Journal on E-Learning 0 0
ENGAGING WITH THE WORLD: STUDENTS OF COMPARATIVE LAW WRITE FOR WIKIPEDIA. Normann Witzleb Legal Education Review Pages = 2009 Monash University Law Research Series 18 Improving students' computer literacy, instilling a critical approach to Internet resources and preparing them for collaborative work are important educational aims today. This article examines how a writing exercise in the style of a Wikipedia article can be used to develop these skills. Students in an elective unit in Comparative Law were asked to create, and review, a Wikipedia entry on an issue, concept or scholar in this field. This article describes the rationale for adopting this writing task, how it was integrated into the teaching and assessment structure of the unit, and how students responded to the exercise. In addition to critically evaluating the potential of this novel teaching tool, the article aims to provide some practical guidance on when Wikipedia assignments might be usefully employed. 0 0
Editing Encyclopedias for Fun and Aggravation. Jeffrey Ross
Frank Shanty
Publishing Research Quarterly This collaborative, retrospective autoethnography begins by offering an overview of the encyclopedias with which we have been involved, as both contributors and consulting editors, over the past decade. We then review our strategies for recruiting authors and maintaining their interest to ensure the highest quality entries; it also covers the mechanics of processing these entries. Next, we discuss the actual and perceived benefits of editing an encyclopedia, the most significant issues we encountered, and our solutions. Finally, we contextualize the previous information in light of recent changes in the scholarly publishing industry. 0 0
Editing Wikipedia content by screen reader: easier interaction with the Accessible Rich Internet Applications suite Marina Buzzi
Barbara Leporini
Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology {PURPOSE:} This study aims to improve Wikipedia usability for the blind and promote the application of standards relating to Web accessibility and usability. {METHOD:} First, accessibility and usability of Wikipedia home, search result and edit pages are analysed using the {JAWS} screen reader; next, suggestions for improving interaction are proposed and a new Wikipedia editing interface built. Most of the improvements were obtained using the Accessible Rich Internet Applications {(WAI-ARIA)} suite, developed by the World Wide Web Consortium {(W3C)} within the framework of the Web Accessibility Initiative {(WAI).} Last, a scenario of use compares interaction of blind people with the original and the modified interfaces. {RESULTS:} Our study highlights that although all contents are accessible via screen reader, usability issues exist due to the user's difficulties when interacting with the interface. The scenario of use shows how building an editing interface with the {W3C} {WAI-ARIA} suite eliminates many obstacles that can prevent blind users from actively contributing to Wikipedia. {CONCLUSION:} The modified Wikipedia editing page is simpler to use via a screen reader than the original one because {ARIA} ensures a page overview, rapid navigation, and total control of what is happening in the interface. 0 0
Editorial-Wikipedia popularity from a citation analysis point of view A. Noruzi Webology 0 0
Effective wiki strategies to support high-context culture learners TechTrends English 0 0
Effects of student-written wiki-based textbooks on pre-service teachers' epistemological beliefs Journal of Educational Computing Research English 0 0
Efficient community management in an industrial design engineering wiki: Distributed leadership ICEIS 2009 - 11th International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems, Proceedings English 0 0
Em Busca Do “Artigo Perfeito”: O Ciclo de Vida dos Textos na Wikipédia Carlos Frederico de Brito d’Andréa Text
Wiki
Wikipedia
Edition.
Texto Livre: Linguagem e Tecnologia Portuguese This paper discusses how text edition in Wikipedia in Portuguese is both stimulated and controled by internal rules. The stages of articles under constrution, from "stub" to "perfection", are guided by different processes of text editing, like Wikify, and protection, as Reverting and Deletion policy. 8 1
Emerging technologies focusing on form: tools and strategies Godwin-Jones
Robert
Language, Learning \& Technology 0 0
Enabling on-line deliberation and collective decision-making through large-scale argumentation: a new approach to the design of an Internet-based mass collaboration platform L. Iandoli
M. Klein
G. Zollo
International Journal of Decision Support System Technology The successful emergence of on-line communities, such as open source software and Wikipedia, seems due to an effective combination of intelligent collective behavior and Internet capabilities. However, current Internet technologies, such as forum, wikis and blogs appear to be less supportive for knowledge organization and consensus formation. In particular very few attempts have been done to support large, diverse, and geographically dispersed groups to systematically explore and come to decisions concerning complex and controversial systemic challenges. In order to overcome the limitations of current collaborative technologies, in this article, we present a new large-scale collaborative platform based on argumentation mapping. To date argumentation mapping has been effectively used for small-scale, co-located groups. The main research questions this work faces are: can argumentation scale? Will large-scale argumentation outperform current collaborative technologies in collective problem solving and deliberation? We present some preliminary results obtained from a first field test of an argumentation platform with a moderate-sized (few hundreds) users community. 0 0
Enciclopédias na web 2.0: colaboração e moderação na Wikipédia e Britannica Online Carlos Frederico de Brito d’Andréa Encyclopedia
Collaboration
Mediation
Wikipedia
Web 2.0
Em Questão: Revista da Faculdade de Biblioteconomia e Comunicação da UFRGS Portuguese This paper compares the editorial policies of Wikipedia and Britannica Online, with focus in openness to public participation and the mechanisms of moderation to allow or limit the collective editing of articles. The description and analysis of those mechanisms consider the technical resources that enable collaboration and validation of information, the rules of internal management of content and community of users. Despite some common features shared by both projects, we point out fundamental differences in those initiatives, such as valuing expertise (Britannica) or the engagement of users (Wikipedia). 16 2
Engaging with the World: Students of Comparative Law Write for Wikipedia Normann Witzleb Wikipedia
ELarning
Student Use of Wikipedia
Comparative Law
Legal Education Review (2009) 9, 83-97 Improving students’ computer literacy, instilling a critical approach to Internet resources and preparing them for collaborative work are important educational aims today. This practice article examines how a writing exercise in the style of a Wikipedia article can be used to develop these skills. Students in an elective unit in Comparative Law were asked to create, and review, a Wikipedia entry on an issue, concept or scholar in this field. This article will describe the rationale for adopting this writing task, how it was integrated into the teaching and assessment structure of the unit, and how students responded to the exercise. In addition to critically evaluating the potential of this novel teaching tool, the article aims to provide some practical guidance on when Wikipedia assignments might be usefully employed. 0 0
Enhancing Grid Service Discovery with a Semantic Wiki and the Concept Matching Approach Tao Guan
David Fowler
Ayomi Bandara
Ed Zaluska
David De Roure
Richard Crowder
Gary Wills
Grid Service Discovery
Semantic wiki
Concept Matching
SKG English 0 0
Enhancing Wikipedia Editing with WAI-ARIA Caterina Senette
Maria Claudia Buzzi
Marina Buzzi
Barbara Leporini
WAI-ARIA
Wikipedia
Accessibility
Blind users
Usability
User testing
USAB English 0 0
Enhancing cluster labeling using Wikipedia David Carmel
Haggai Roitman
Naama Zwerdling
English This work investigates cluster labeling enhancement by utilizing Wikipedia, the free on-line encyclopedia. We describe a general framework for cluster labeling that extracts candidate labels from Wikipedia in addition to important terms that are extracted directly from the text. The "labeling quality" of each candidate is then evaluated by several independent judges and the top evaluated candidates are recommended for labeling. Our experimental results reveal that the Wikipedia labels agree with manual labels associated by humans to a cluster, much more than with significant terms that are extracted directly from the text. We show that in most cases even when human's associated label appears in the text, pure statistical methods have difficulty in identifying them as good descriptors. Furthermore, our experiments show that for more than 85% of the clusters in our test collection, the manual label (or an inflection, or a synonym of it) appears in the top five labels recommended by our system. 0 0
Enhancing managerial competencies through a wiki-learning space International Journal of Continuing Engineering Education and Life-Long Learning English 0 0
Epistemic values and information management D. Fallis
D. Whitcomb
Information Society In contemporary life, some of the most important decisions that people must make are about the management of information (e.g., about the collection, organization, distribution, and evaluation of information). Legislatures have to decide which privacy and intellectual property laws to adopt, libraries have to decide which information resources (book, journals, databases, etc.) to collect and how to organize them, and individuals have to decide whether to trust the information that they find on Wikipedia or on the Internet in general. This article combines epistemology and decision analysis in an attempt to better equip people to make such information management decisions. 0 0
Essjay's Ethos": Rethinking Textual Origins and Intellectual Property" James J. Brown College Composition and Communication Discussions of intellectual property are often the focus of rhetoric and composition research, and the question of textual origins grounds these discussions. Through an examination of Wikipedia, the online encyclopedia anyone can edit, this essay addresses disciplinary concerns about textual origins and intellectual property through a discussion of situated and constructed ethos." {(Contains} 8 notes.)" 0 0
Evaluating a statistical CCG parser on Wikipedia Matthew Honnibal
Joel Nothman
James R. Curran
People's Web English 0 0
Evaluating the trustworthiness of Wikipedia articles through quality and credibility Sai T. Moturu
Huan Liu
WikiSym English Wikipedia has become a very popular destination for Web surfers seeking knowledge about a wide variety of subjects. While it contains many helpful articles with accurate information, it also consists of unreliable articles with inaccurate or incomplete information. A casual observer might not be able to differentiate between the good and the bad. In this work, we identify the necessity and challenges for trust assessment in Wikipedia, and propose a framework that can help address these challenges by identifying relevant features and providing empirical means to meet the requirements for such an evaluation. We select relevant variables and perform experiments to evaluate our approach. The results demonstrate promising performance that is better than comparable approaches and could possibly be replicated with other social media applications. 0 0
Evaluation of pharmacist use and perception of Wikipedia as a drug information resource Laurie Brokowski
Amy Heck Sheehan
The Annals of Pharmacotherapy 0 1
Evidence-based decisions for the wiki world International Journal of Metadata, Semantics and Ontologies English 0 0
Expanding network communities from representative examples Andrew Mehler
Steven Skiena
ACM Transactions on Knowledge Discovery from Data We present an approach to leverage a small subset of a coherent community within a social network into a much larger, more representative sample. Our problem becomes identifying a small conductance subgraph containing many (but not necessarily all) members of the given seed set. Starting with an initial seed set representing a sample of a community, we seek to discover as much of the full community as possible. We present a general method for network community expansion, demonstrating that our methods work well in expanding communities in real world networks starting from small given seed groups (20 to 400 members). Our approach is marked by incremental expansion from the seeds with retrospective analysis to determine the ultimate boundaries of our community. We demonstrate how to increase the robustness of the general approach through bootstrapping multiple random partitions of the input set into seed and evaluation groups. We go beyond statistical comparisons against gold standards to careful subjective evaluations of our expanded communities. This process explains the causes of most disagreement between our expanded communities and our gold-standards - arguing that our expansion methods provide more reliable communities than can be extracted from reference sources/gazetteers such as Wikipedia. 0 0
Expediency-based practice? Medical students' reliance on Google and Wikipedia for biomedical inquiries T. Judd
G. Kennedy
British Journal of Educational Technology Abstract Internet usage logs captured during self-directed learning sessions were used to determine how undergraduate medical students used five popular sites to locate and access biomedical resources. Students' perceptions of each site's usefulness and reliability were determined through a survey. Google and Wikipedia were the most frequently used sites despite students rating them as the least reliable of the five sites investigated. The library”the students' primary point of access to online journals”was the least used site, and when using Google less than 40\% of pages or resources located by students were from ˜high quality sources. Students' use of all sites' search tools was unsophisticated. Despite being avid users of online information and search tools, the students targeted in this study appeared to lack the requisite information-seeking skills to make the most of online resources. Although there is evidence that these skills improved over time, a greater emphasis on information literacy skills training may be required to ensure that graduates are able to locate the best available evidence to support their professional practice. 0 0
Experience report - Wiki for law firms Urs Egli
Peter Sommerlad
WikiSym English 0 0
Experimental evaluation of wiki technology and the shaper role in rapid interdisciplinary requirements negotiation Proceedings of the 42nd Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, HICSS English 0 0
Explaining the Sustainability of Digital Ecosystems based on the Wiki Model through Critical Mass Theory P Prasarnphanich
C Wagner
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics This research investigates the sustainability of a type of digital ecosystem, namely knowledge sharing communities built on the wiki model. Sustainability is hypothesized to result from the participation of contributors with varying levels of resources and interests. The differences in resources and interests, according to critical mass theory, enable such communities to overcome typical start-up and growth problems. The article describes a preliminary empirical test of critical mass theory in this context, with Wikipedia as test case that demonstrates sustainability as well as resource and interest heterogeneity, based on a survey of 78 Wikipedians. The characteristic patterns of success exhibited in Wikipedia are expected to inform the management of other wiki based information assets. 0 1
Exploit A Major Breakthrough of Your Lifetime: Learn The Secrets of Anti-Aging Science T. Aneesh Journal of Pharmacy Research 0 0
Exploitation of the wikipedia category system for enhancing the value of LCSH Yoji Kiyota
Hiroshi Nakagawa
Satoshi Sakai
Tatsuya Mori
Hidetaka Masuda
LCSH
Subject headings
Wikipedia categories
JCDL English 0 0
Exploiting Negative Categories and Wikipedia Structures for Document Classification Meenakshi Sundaram Murugeshan
K. Lakshmi
Saswati Mukherjee
XML classification
Profile creation
Negative Categories
Similarity measure
Feature Selection
Multiple Classifiers
ARTCOM English 0 0
Exploiting Wikipedia and EuroWordNet to solve Cross-Lingual Question Answering Sergio Ferrández
Antonio Toral
Óscar Ferrández
Antonio Ferrández
Rafael Muñoz
Sergio Ferrandez
Oscar Ferrandez
Antonio Ferrandez
Rafael Munoz
Information Sciences English This paper describes a new advance in solving Cross-Lingual Question Answering (CL–QA) tasks. It is built on three main pillars: (i) the use of several multilingual knowledge resources to reference words between languages (the Inter Lingual Index (ILI) module of EuroWordNet and the multilingual knowledge encoded in Wikipedia); (ii) the consideration of more than only one translation per word in order to search candidate answers; and (iii) the analysis of the question in the original language without any translation process. This novel approach overcomes the errors caused by the common use of Machine Translation (MT) services by CL–QA systems. We also expose some studies and experiments that justify the importance of analyzing whether a Named Entity should be translated or not. Experimental results in bilingual scenarios show that our approach performs better than an MT based CL–QA approach achieving an average improvement of 36.7%.
This paper describes a new advance in solving {Cross-Lingual} Question Answering {(CL-QA)} tasks. It is built on three main pillars: (i) the use of several multilingual knowledge resources to reference words between languages (the Inter Lingual Index {(ILI)} module of {EuroWordNet} and the multilingual knowledge encoded in Wikipedia); (ii) the consideration of more than only one translation per word in order to search candidate answers; and (iii) the analysis of the question in the original language without any translation process. This novel approach overcomes the errors caused by the common use of Machine Translation {(MT)} services by {CL-QA} systems. We also expose some studies and experiments that justify the importance of analyzing whether a Named Entity should be translated or not. Experimental results in bilingual scenarios show that our approach performs better than an {MT} based {CL-QA} approach achieving an average improvement of 36.7\%. 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
0 0
Exploiting Wikipedia as external knowledge for document clustering Xiaohua Hu
Xiaodan Zhang
Caimei Lu
E. K. Park
Xiaohua Zhou
English In traditional text clustering methods, documents are represented as "bags of words" without considering the semantic information of each document. For instance, if two documents use different collections of core words to represent the same topic, they may be falsely assigned to different clusters due to the lack of shared core words, although the core words they use are probably synonyms or semantically associated in other forms. The most common way to solve this problem is to enrich document representation with the background knowledge in an ontology. There are two major issues for this approach: (1) the coverage of the ontology is limited, even for WordNet or Mesh, (2) using ontology terms as replacement or additional features may cause information loss, or introduce noise. In this paper, we present a novel text clustering method to address these two issues by enriching document representation with Wikipedia concept and category information. We develop two approaches, exact match and relatedness-match, to map text documents to Wikipedia concepts, and further to Wikipedia categories. Then the text documents are clustered based on a similarity metric which combines document content information, concept information as well as category information. The experimental results using the proposed clustering framework on three datasets (20-newsgroup, TDT2, and LA Times) show that clustering performance improves significantly by enriching document representation with Wikipedia concepts and categories. 0 0
Exploiting external/domain knowledge to enhance traditional text mining using graph-based methods X. Zhang Drexel University, Pennsylvania English Finding the best way to utilize external/domain knowledge to enhance traditional text mining has been a challenging task. The difficulty centers on the lack of means in representing a document with external/domain knowledge integrated. Graphs are powerful and versatile tools, useful in various subfields of science and engineering for their simple illustration of complicated problems. However, the graph-based approach on knowledge representation and discovery remains relatively unexplored. In this thesis, I propose a graph-based text mining system to incorporate semantic knowledge, document section knowledge, document linkage knowledge, and document category knowledge into the tasks of text clustering and topic analysis. I design a novel term-level graph knowledge representation and a graph-based clustering algorithm to incorporate semantic and document section knowledge for biomedical literature clustering and topic analysis. I present a Markov Random Field {(MRF)} with a Relaxation Labeling {(RL)} algorithm to incorporate document linkage knowledge. I evaluate different types of linkage among documents, including explicit linkage such as hyperlink and citation link, implicit linkage such as coauthor link and co-citation link, and pseudo linkage such as similarity link. I develop a novel semantic-based method to integrate Wikipedia concepts and categories as external knowledge into traditional document clustering. In order to support these new approaches, I develop two automated algorithms to extract multiword phrases and ontological concepts, respectively. The evaluations of news collection, web dataset, and biomedical literature prove the effectiveness of the proposed methods. In the experiment of document clustering, the proposed term-level graph-based method not only outperforms the baseline k-means algorithm in all configurations but also is superior in terms of efficiency. The {MRF-based} algorithm significantly improves spherical k-means and model-based k-means clustering on the datasets containing explicit or implicit linkage; the Wikipedia knowledge-based clustering also improves the document-content-only-based clustering. On the task of topic analysis, the proposed graph presentation, sub graph detection, and graph ranking algorithm can effectively identify corpus-level topic terms and cluster-level topic terms. 0 0
Exploring Wikipedia and DMoz as Knowledge Bases for Engineering a User Interests Hierarchy for Social Network Applications Mandar Haridas
Doina Caragea
OTM English 0 0
Exploring models for semantic category verification Dmitri Roussinov
Ozgur Turetken
Information Systems Many artificial intelligence tasks, such as automated question answering, reasoning, or heterogeneous database integration, involve verification of a semantic category (e.g. coffee" is a drink "red" is a color while "steak" is not a drink and "big" is not a color). In this research we explore completely automated on-the-fly verification of a membership in any arbitrary category which has not been expected a priori. Our approach does not rely on any manually codified knowledge (such as {WordNet} or Wikipedia) but instead capitalizes on the diversity of topics and word usage on the World Wide Web thus can be considered "knowledge-light" and complementary to the "knowledge-intensive" approaches. We have created a quantitative verification model and established (1) what specific variables are important and (2) what ranges and upper limits of accuracy are attainable. While our semantic verification algorithm is entirely self-contained (not involving any previously reported components that are beyond the scope of this paper) we have tested it empirically within our fact seeking engine on the well known {TREC} conference test questions. Due to our implementation of semantic verification the answer accuracy has improved by up to 16\% depending on the specific models and metrics used. 2009 Elsevier {B.V.} All rights reserved." 0 0
Exploring the effects of experience on wiki anxiety and wiki usability: an online study Benjamin R. Cowan
Lorenzo Vigentini
Mervyn A. Jack
Experience
Usability
Wiki
Wiki anxiety
BCS-HCI English 0 0
Exploring the new frontiers of collaborative community. DANIEL SCHACKMAN New Media \& Society The article reviews several books on collaborative structures in online communication, including {Coming} of Age in Second Life: An Anthropologist Explores the Virtually Human by Tom Boellstorff, {Wikipedia} Second Life and Beyond: From Production to Produsage by Axel Bruns, and {The} Second Life Herald: The Virtual Tabloid That Witnessed the Dawn of the Metaverse by Peter Ludlow and Mark Wallace. 0 0
Exploring the use of Wikis for information sharing in interdisciplinary design Ammy Jiranida Phuwanartnurak Wiki
Information sharing
Interdisciplinary design
GROUP English 0 0
Extracting Geospatial Entities from Wikipedia Jeremy Witmer
Jugal Kalita
Geospatial extraction
Wikipedia extraction
Location extraction
NER
Geospatial entity recognition
ICSC English 0 0
Extracting Key Terms From Noisy and Multitheme Documents Maria Grineva
Maxim Grinev
Dmitry Lizorkin
Semantic relatedness
Contextual advertising
Information retrieval
WWW2009: 18th International World Wide Web Conference We present a novel method for key term extraction from text documents. In our method, document is modeled as a graph of semantic relationships between terms of that document. We exploit the following remarkable feature of the graph: the terms related to the main topics of the document tend to bunch up into densely interconnected subgraphs or communities, while non-important terms fall into weakly interconnected communities, or even become isolated vertices. We apply graph community detection techniques to partition the graph into thematically cohesive groups of terms. We introduce a criterion function to select groups that contain key terms discarding groups with unimportant terms. To weight terms and determine semantic relatedness between them we exploit information extracted from Wikipedia. Using such an approach gives us the following two advantages. First, it allows effectively processing multi-theme documents. Second, it is good at filtering out noise information in the document, such as, for example, navigational bars or headers in web pages. Evaluations of the method show that it outperforms existing methods producing key terms with higher precision and recall. Additional experiments on web pages prove that our method appears to be substantially more effective on noisy and multi-theme documents than existing methods. 0 0
Extracting Semantics from Multimedia Content using Wikipedia Angela Fogarolli
Marco Ronchetti
English 0 0
Extracting lexical reference rules from Wikipedia Eyal Shnarch
Libby Barak
Ido Dagan
ACL English 0 0
Extracting thematic communities from Wikipedia Yang Yu
Zhangxi Lin
Guoping Xia
Beijing Hangkong Hangtian Daxue Xuebao/Journal of Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics The current search module in Wikipedia has low search efficiency due to the search method, which is built on simple keywords matching. To improve the efficiency of knowledge retrieval from the Wikipedia spheres with more accurate links among them, the algorithm named term distance based on linkage {(TDL)} was proposed. {TDL} defines a new measure of distance between two keywords, which reorients and organizes those keywords into clusters. It is based on link structure analysis underpinned by computational models. The mechanism of ranking and recommending was imported. The experiment, which based on the snapshot of Wikipedia {(May} 2009), indicates that {TDL} would significantly increase the accuracy of knowledge retrieval in Wikipedia and this new algorithm can improve the users' satisfaction by 7\% compared with the present one. 0 0
Extracting world and linguistic knowledge from Wikipedia Simone Paolo Ponzetto
Michael Strube
NAACL-Tutorials English 0 0
Factors affecting the way students collaborate in a wiki for English language learning Australasian Journal of Educational Technology English 0 0
Finding hedges by chasing weasels: hedge detection using Wikipedia tags and shallow linguistic features Viola Ganter
Michael Strube
ACLShort English 0 0
Fixing the floating gap: The online encyclopaedia Wikipedia as a global memory place Christian Pentzold Collective memory
Consensus and contestation
Discourse
World Wide Web
Memory Studies English The article proposes to interpret the web-based encyclopaedia Wikipedia as a global memory place. After presenting the core elements and basic characteristics of wikis and Wikipedia respectively, the article discusses four related issues of social memory studies: collective memory, communicative and cultural memory, `memory places' and the `floating gap'. In a third step, these theoretical premises are connected to the understanding of discourse as social cognition. Fourth, comparison is made between the potential of the World Wide Web as cyberspace for collective remembrance and the obstacles that stand in its way. On this basis, the article argues that Wikipedia presents a global memory place where memorable elements are negotiated. Its complex processes of discussion and article creation are a model of the discursive fabrication of memory. Thus, they can be viewed and analysed as the transition, the `floating gap' between communicative and collective frames of memory. 6 2
FolksoViz: A Semantic Relation-Based Folksonomy Visualization Using the Wikipedia Corpus Kangpyo Lee
Hyunwoo Kim
Hyopil Shin
Hyoung-Joo Kim
Folksonomy
Collaborative tagging
Semantic Relation
Visualisation
Wikipedia
Web 2.0
SNPD English 0 0
Formalization and community investment in wikipedia's regulating texts: the role of essays Jonathan T. Morgan
Katie Derthick
Toni Ferro
Elly Searle
Mark Zachry
Travis Kriplean
Computer-mediated communication
Computer-Supported Cooperative Work
Sociotechnical systems
Wiki
SIGDOC English 0 0
Forums and wikis and blogs, oh my: building a foundation for social computing in education Timothy J. Ellis
Maxine S. Cohen
Asynchronous learning networks
Blogs
Discussion forums
Social computing
Web 2.0
Wiki
FIE English 0 0
Fostering online collaborative learning using wikis: a pilot study Andri Ioannou
Agni Stylianou-Georgiou
CSCL English 0 0
From a Social Wiki to a Social Workflow System Gustaf Neumann
Selim Erol
English This paper presents an approach for using wikis in an organizational context and a proto-type implementation for developing a wiki-based workflow system. We provide general considerations and requirements for changing a wiki’s application context from public to organizational and will describe consequences for wiki architecture and policy management. The presented workflow system is based on an open-source wiki tool and is targeted at collaborative workflow design and activity management. 0 0
GRF wiki UOC. Trabajo colectivo, colaboración y evaluación David Gómez-Fontanills Congreso de la Cibersociedad Spanish GRF wiki is a wiki with forms and semantic extensions used in the area of design in Multimedia online

studies at UOC as a complement of the Virtual Campus. Here we explain how an activity of analysis related with brands visual identity was developed as a collective task by the whole of the classroom with a self-directed distribution of tasks depending on the process of work and how this work was evaluated.

(Spanish) GRF wiki es un wiki con formularios y extensiones semánticas usado en el área de diseño del Graduado Multimedia a distancia de la UOC como complemento del Campus Virtual. Aquí se explica como se desarrolló una actividad de análisis relacionada con la identidad gráfica de las marcas como tarea colectiva del conjunto del aula, con un reparto de tareas autodirigido en función del proceso de trabajo y de qué forma este trabajo fue evaluado.

(Catalan) El GRF wiki és un wiki amb formularis I extensions semàntiques utilitzat a l'àrea de disseny del Graduat Multimèdia a distància de la UOC com a complement del Campus Virtual. Aquí s'explica com es va portar a terme una activitat d'anàlisi relacionada amb la identitat gràfica de les marques com a tasca col·lectiva del conjunt de l'aula, amb una distribució de tasques autodirigida en funció del procés de treball i de quina

manera va ser avaluada aquesta feina.
0 0
Gaming against the greater good Ryan McGrady First Monday, , Number 2 - 2 February 2009 Wikipedia has grown to be one of the most visited Web sites in the world. Despite its influence on popular culture and the way we think about knowledge production and consumption, the conversation about why and how it works —or whether it’s credible at all — is ongoing. This paper began as an examination of what the concept of “authority” means in Wikipedia and what role rhetoric might play in manufacturing this authority. But Wikipedia’s editors have functioned well as a community, having collaboratively developed a comprehensive set of social norms designed to place the project before any individual. Hence ideas like authority and rhetoric have only marginal roles in day–to–day activities. This paper takes an in–depth look at these norms and how they work, paying particular attention to a relatively new guideline that exemplifies the spirit of the Wikipedia community — “Gaming the system.”. 0 1
Geo-wiki.org: The use of crowdsourcing to improve global land cover Remote Sensing English 0 0
GikiCLEF topics and Wikipedia articles: did they blend? Nuno Cardoso CLEF English 0 0
GikiP at GeoCLEF 2008: joining GIR and QA forces for querying Wikipedia Diana Santos
Nuno Cardoso
Paula Carvalho
Iustin Dornescu
Sven Hartrumpf
Johannes Leveling
Yvonne Skalban
CLEF English 0 0
Google: to use, or not to use. What is the question? Natasha Choolhun Legal Information Management 0 0
Governance, Organization, and Democracy on the Internet: The Iron Law and the Evolution of Wikipedia Piotr Konieczny Community
Democracy
Internet
Oligarchy
Iron law
Organization
Wikipedia
Sociological Forum, , Issue 1, , 31 Jan 2009 This study examines whether the Iron Law of Oligarchy exists in Wikipedia by analyzing how a key policy of the website regarding verifiability evolved into its current form. The study describes the decision-making processes of Wikipedia and shows that there are many factors preventing or slowing the development of oligarchy on Wikipedia. The study provides data advancing theoretical concepts related to the Iron Law of Oligarchy and the evolution of virtual communities and organizations; results and knowledge gained can also improve Wikipedia policies related to verifiability. Michels wrote: "who says organization, says oligarchy." I argue that we should follow this with a caveat: "who says wiki-organization, says no to oligarchy." 0 2
Gênero e colaboração: a construção do verbete da Wikipédia Vanessa Wendhausen Lima Anais Hipertexto 2009 Portuguese 0 0
Half-day workshop on "the value of corporate Wikis" Lakshmi Goel
Iris Junglas
WikiSym English 0 0
Harnessing the Web Information Ecosystem with Wiki-based Visualization Dashboards Matthew McKeon IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics English We describe the design and deployment of Dashiki, a public website where users may collaboratively build visualization dashboards through a combination of a wiki-like syntax and interactive editors. Our goals are to extend existing research on social data analysis into presentation and organization of data from multiple sources, explore new metaphors for these activities, and participate more fully in the web!s information ecology by providing tighter integration with real-time data. To support these goals, our design includes novel and low-barrier mechanisms for editing and layout of dashboard pages and visualizations, connection to data sources, and coordinating interaction between visualizations. In addition to describing these technologies, we provide a preliminary report on the public launch of a prototype based on this design, including a description of the activities of our users derived from observation and interviews 0 0
Heuristics for Implementation of Wiki Technology in Higher Education Learning Portia Pusey
Gabriele Meiselwitz
Communal Constructivism
Wiki
Wiki Learning
Wiki Learning Environment
OCSC English 0 0
High School Research and Critical Literacy: Social Studies With and Despite Wikipedia H Harouni HARVARD EDUCATIONAL REVIEW Drawing on experiences in his social studies classroom, Houman Harouni evaluates both the challenges and possibilities of helping high school students develop critical research skills. The author describes how he used Wikipedia to design classroom activities that address issues of authorship, neutrality, and reliability in information gathering. The online encyclopedia is often lamented by teachers, scholars, and librarians, but its widespread use necessitates a new approach to teaching research. In describing the experience, Harouni concludes that teaching research skills in the contemporary context requires ongoing observations of the research strategies and practices students already employ as well as the active engagement of student interest and background knowledge. 0 0
How and why do college students use Wikipedia? S. Lim English The purposes of this study were to explore college students' perceptions, uses of, and motivations for using Wikipedia, and to understand their information behavior concerning Wikipedia based on social cognitive theory (SCT). A Web survey was used to collect data in the spring of 2008. The study sample consisted of students from an introductory undergraduate course at a large public university in the midwestern United States. A total of 134 students participated in the study, resulting in a 32.8% response rate. The major findings of the study include the following: Approximately one-third of the students reported using Wikipedia for academic purposes. The students tended to use Wikipedia for quickly checking facts and finding background information. They had positive past experiences with Wikipedia; however, interestingly, their perceptions of its information quality were not correspondingly high. The level of their confidence in evaluating Wikipedia's information quality was, at most, moderate. Respondents' past experience with Wikipedia, their positive emotional state, their disposition to believe information in Wikipedia, and information utility were positively related to their outcome expectations of Wikipedia. However, among the factors affecting outcome expectations, only information utility and respondents' positive emotions toward Wikipedia were related to their use of it. Further, when all of the independent variables, including the mediator, outcome expectations, were considered, only the variable information utility was related to Wikipedia use, which may imply a limited applicability of SCT to understanding Wikipedia use. However, more empirical evidence is needed to determine the applicability of this theory to Wikipedia use. Finally, this study supports the knowledge value of Wikipedia (Fallis, 2008), despite students' cautious attitudes toward Wikipedia. The study suggests that educators and librarians need to provide better guidelines for using Wikipedia, rather than prohibiting Wikipedia use altogether. 0 2
Identifying document topics using the Wikipedia category network Peter Schönhofen Wikipedia
Ontology
Classification
Clustering
Web Intelli. and Agent Sys. English In the last few years the size and coverage of Wikipedia, a community edited, freely available on-line encyclopedia has reached the point where it can be effectively used to identify topics discussed in a document, similarly to an ontology or taxonomy. In this paper we will show that even a fairly simple algorithm that exploits only the titles and categories of Wikipedia articles can characterize documents by Wikipedia categories surprisingly well. We test the reliability of our method by predicting categories of Wikipedia articles themselves based on their bodies, and also by performing classification and clustering on 20 Newsgroups and RCV1, representing documents by their Wikipedia categories instead of (or in addition to) their texts. 0 1
Implementation of an onto-wiki toolkit using web services to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of medical ontology co-authoring and analysis A. S. Lau English The ICD11 draft was launched by the WHO in order to define ICD ontology by selected experts using a wiki-like structured joint-authoring tool. The challenge of this expert-/community-based ontology co-authoring is how to manage and process the ontology objects in the wiki page. The wiki-tools in the market require lots of time and human effort to organise, process and extract the ontology content from the wiki page for review and analysis. Therefore, this article is to investigate how to apply semantic web technology to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of ontology co-authoring and analysis. An onto-wiki toolkit that provides a set of web services is proposed for ontology creators to create, co-edit, organise, map and relate the wiki-like structured ontology objects on a wiki page for review and analysis. By using the onto-wiki toolkits, the pace of terminology standardisation, e-patient records integration, exchange and sharing can be improved. 0 0
Improving Wikipedia: educational opportunity and professional responsibility Kristine L. Callis
Lindsey R. Christ
Julian Resasco
David W. Armitage
Jeremy D. Ash
Timothy T. Caughlin
Sharon F. Clemmensen
Stella M. Copeland
Timothy J. Fullman
Ryan L. Lynch
Charley Olson
Raya A. Pruner
Ernane H. Vieira-Neto
Raneve West-Singh
Emilio M. Bruna
English 0 2
Improving the extraction of bilingual terminology from Wikipedia Maike Erdmann
Kotaro Nakayama
Takahiro Hara
Shojiro Nishio
Bilingual dictionary
Data mining
Link analysis
ACM Trans. Multimedia Comput. Commun. Appl. English Research on the automatic construction of bilingual dictionaries has achieved impressive results. Bilingual dictionaries are usually constructed from parallel corpora, but since these corpora are available only for selected text domains and language pairs, the potential of other resources is being explored as well. In this article, we want to further pursue the idea of using Wikipedia as a corpus for bilingual terminology extraction. We propose a method that extracts term-translation pairs from different types of Wikipedia link information. After that, an {SVM} classifier trained on the features of manually labeled training data determines the correctness of unseen term-translation pairs. 2009 {ACM. 0 0
Improving wiki quality by applying web of trust Proceedings of the 5th IASTED European Conference on Internet and Multimedia Systems and Applications, EuroIMSA 2009 English 0 0
In search of credibility: pupils' information practices in learning environments O. Sundin
H. Francke
Information Research Introduction. We aim to create an in-depth understanding of how pupils in upper secondary school negotiate the credibility and authority of information as part of their practices of learning. Particular focus is on the use of user-created resources, such as Wikipedia, where authorship is collective and/or hard to determine. Method. An ethnographic study was conducted in an upper secondary school class. Methods included observation, group interviews and information seeking diaries in the form of blogs. Analysis. The empirical material from the class room study was categorised and aggregated into five themes, which emerged as a result of the interplay between the empirical material and a perspective based in socio-cultural theory. Results. The pupils make credibility assessments based on methods developed for traditional media where, for instance, origin and authorship are important. They employ some user-created sources, notably Wikipedia, because these are easily available, but they are uncertain about when these sources should be considered credible. Conclusions. In an increasingly diverse media world, pupils' credibility assessments need to be informed by a socio-technical understanding of sources which takes both social and material aspects into account. The diversity of resources requires that pupils assess credibility for the particular situation in which they use information. 0 0
Increasing the accuracy of Wiki searches using semantic knowledge engine and semantic archivist Gretchen Lowerison
Michael Lowerison
Wiki
Data aggregation
Knowledge building
Knowledge management
Search and retrieval
Semantic analysis
WikiSym English 0 0
Incremental knowledge acquisition in software development using a weakly-typed Wiki Filipe F. Correia
Hugo S. Ferreira
Nuno Flores
Ademar Aguiar
Knowledge acquisition
Semantic Wikis
Software engineering
WikiSym English 0 0
Information Sharing and Social Computing: Why, What, and Where? O Nov ADVANCES IN COMPUTERS Why do people share content, metainformation, and programming knowledge with people they don't know, in return for no money? In a series of studies, the different drivers for information sharing in social computing systems are identified, and the effect of these drivers on actual levels of sharing is estimated, using a combination of survey and system data from Wikipedia, Flickr and a number of open source software projects. This way, we gain deeper understanding of why people share information, what types of information they share, and what are the venues used for the different types of sharing. 0 0
Information arbitrage across multi-lingual Wikipedia Eytan Adar
Michael Skinner
Daniel S. Weld
English The rapid globalization of Wikipedia is generating a parallel, multi-lingual corpus of unprecedented scale. Pages for the same topic in many different languages emerge both as a result of manual translation and independent development. Unfortunately, these pages may appear at different times, vary in size, scope, and quality. Furthermore, differential growth rates cause the conceptual mapping between articles in different languages to be both complex and dynamic. These disparities provide the opportunity for a powerful form of information arbitrage --leveraging articles in one or more languages to improve the content in another. Analyzing four large language domains (English, Spanish, French, and German), we present Ziggurat , an automated system for aligning Wikipedia infoboxes, creating new infoboxes as necessary, filling in missing information, and detecting discrepancies between parallel pages. Our method uses self-supervised learning and our experiments demonstrate the method's feasibility, even in the absence of dictionaries. 0 2
Infrastruktura slovenistične literarne vede Miran Hladnik Slovene Studies
Digitalisation of documents
Databases
Slovene Digital Library
Video lectures
Wikisource
Wikipedia
28th Obdobja Symposium: Infrastruktura slovenščine in slovenistike Slovenian Slovene literary studies is being rapidly brought up to date through the digitalisation of Slovene literature from its beginnings to the present, the relocation of academic communication, research and teaching work to the Internet, and the digitalisation of past published works on literary studies. The article describes the current situation and takes a look into the future. 1 1
IntroEngineering.org: A structured wiki community for instructors of first-year engineering courses ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition, Conference Proceedings English 0 0
Is Wikipedia Growing a Longer Tail? Lam
S.K.
J Riedl.
ACM 2009 International Conference on Group Work Wikipedia has millions of articles, many of which receive little attention. One group of Wikipedians believes these obscure entries should be removed because they are uninteresting and neglected; these are the deletionists. Other Wikipedians disagree, arguing that this long tail of articles is precisely Wikipedia’s advantage over other encyclopedias; these are the inclusionists. This paper looks at two overarching questions on the debate between deletionists and inclusionists: (1) What are the implications to the long tail of the evolving standards for article birth and death? (2) How is viewership affected by the decreasing notability of articles in the long tail? The answers to five detailed research questions that are inspired by these overarching questions should help better frame this debate and provide insight into how Wikipedia is evolving. 0 2
Is Wikipedia growing a longer tail? S. K. Lam
J. Riedl
English Wikipedia has millions of articles, many of which receive little attention. One group of Wikipedians believes these obscure entries should be removed because they are uninteresting and neglected; these are the deletionists. Other Wikipedians disagree, arguing that this long tail of articles is precisely Wikipedia's advantage over other encyclopedias; these are the inclusionists. This paper looks at two overarching questions on the debate between deletionists and inclusionists: (1) What are the implications to the long tail of the evolving standards for article birth and death? (2) How is viewership affected by the decreasing notability of articles in the long tail? The answers to five detailed research questions that are inspired by these overarching questions should help better frame this debate and provide insight into how Wikipedia is evolving. 0 2
Is Wikipedia link structure different? Jaap Kamps
Marijn Koolen
Wikipedia
Link evidence
Information retrieval
WSDM English 0 0
Is Wikipedia unsuitable as a clinical information resource for medical students? Michael P Pender
Kaye E Lasserre
Christopher Del Mar
Lisa Kruesi
Satyamurthy Anuradha
Medical Teacher 0 0
Is open source software living up to its promises? Insights for open innovation management from two open source software-inspired projects Muller-G. Seitz
G. Reger
R \& D Management At present, several virtual initiatives claim to be acting according to the open source software {(OSS)} arena, which is often deemed a role model for open innovation. Against this background, this research focuses on a comparative case study of two non-profit project networks that attempt to operate in line with the {OSS} phenomenon: Wikipedia, the online encyclopedia, and the development of an automobile, Open Source car. We show that many parallels to the {OSS} arena can be drawn in both cases. However, this analysis must be performed cautiously, as several factors limit the applicability of {OSS} principles to non-software-related arenas. We conclude with a discussion of implications for open innovation research and managerial practice. 0 1
Issues of cross-contextual information quality evaluation—The case of Arabic, English, and Korean Wikipedias Besiki Stvilia
Abdullah Al-Faraj
& Yong Jeong Yi.
Quality
Quality Models
Context translation
Library & Information Science Research, 31(4), 232-239 Objective: An initial exploration into the issue of information quality evaluation across different cultural and community contexts based on data collected from the Arabic, English, and Korean Wikipedias showed that different Wikipedia communities may have different understandings of and models for quality. It also showed the feasibility of using some article edit-based metrics for automated quality measurement across different Wikipedia contexts. A model for measuring context similarity was developed and used to evaluate the relationship between similarities in sociocultural factors and the understanding of information quality by the three Wikipedia communities. 0 0
Journal club. An ecologist calls for a citizen-science 'Wiki'. Nature English 0 0
Junior physician's use of Web 2.0 for information seeking and medical education: A qualitative study Benjamin Hughes
Indra Joshi
Hugh Lemonde
Jonathan Wareham
International Journal of Medical Informatics Background: Web 2.0 internet tools and methods have attracted considerable attention as a means to improve health care delivery. Despite evidence demonstrating their use by medical professionals, there is no detailed research describing how Web 2.0 influences physicians' daily clinical practice. Hence this study examines Web 2.0 use by 35 junior physicians in clinical settings to further understand their impact on medical practice. Method: Diaries and interviews encompassing 177 days of internet use or 444 search incidents, analyzed via thematic analysis. Results: Results indicate that 53\% of internet visits employed user-generated or Web 2.0 content, with Google and Wikipedia used by 80\% and 70\% of physicians, respectively. Despite awareness of information credibility risks with Web 2.0 content, it has a role in information seeking for both clinical decisions and medical education. This is enabled by the ability to cross check information and the diverse needs for background and non-verified information. Conclusion: Web 2.0 use represents a profound departure from previous learning and decision processes which were normally controlled by senior medical staff or medical schools. There is widespread concern with the risk of poor quality information with Web 2.0 use, and the manner in which physicians are using it suggest effective use derives from the mitigating actions by the individual physician. Three alternative policy options are identified to manage this risk and improve efficiency in Web 2.0's use. 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. 0 1
Knowledge Fusion Creation Model and Its Implementation Based on Wiki Platform Youkui Wen
Yuying Jiao
Knowledge creation
Model
Knowledge fusion
Knowledge unit ontology
Semantic mapping
Wiki platform
IEEC English 0 0
Knowledge Maturing in the Semantic MediaWiki: A Design Study in Career Guidance Nicolas Weber
Karin Schoefegger
Jenny Bimrose
Tobias Ley
Stefanie Lindstaedt
Alan Brown
Sally-Anne Barnes
Knowledge Maturing
Semantic MediaWiki
EC-TEL English 0 0
La dynamique des réseaux coopératifs : l'exemple des logiciels libres et du projet d'encyclopédie libre et ouverte Wikipédia Benjamin Grassineau Université Paris Dauphine French 0 0
La négociation des points de vue Nicolas Auray Réseaux French The on-line encyclopaedia Wikipedia is a pragmatic patchwork, an assemblage of many singular points of view on a given subject, based on rules of clarity and communicability of public statements. Its success reflects a transformation of our relationship with knowledge. In this article the authors use a social map of the conflicts in the on-line encyclopaedia to study the places where discussion tilts into dispute, quarrels and complaints for moral misconduct or disturbance. Based on statistics and focused monographs, they show that the Wikipedia is characterized by the inability to solve certain conflicts through existing procedures, and explore the reasons for this phenomenon. 0 1
La vigilance participative Dominique Cardon
Julien Levrel
Réseaux French This article proposes an interpretation of the Wikipedia model of coordination and governance, focused on the forms of vigilance that Wikipedians use to monitor and control other contributors. Wikipedia’s procedural system of self-regulation solves conflicts through discussion, mediation and sanctions, by organizing tension between the local control of statements and the centralized measures against those who repeatedly contravene the encyclopaedia’s principles. The authors describe the architecture of the arenas and rules that make it possible to solve publishing conflicts without transgressing the principle of an unconditional openness to everyone’s right to contribute and to monitor others. 18 2
Labeling News Topic Threads with Wikipedia Entries Tomoki Okuoka
Tomokazu Takahashi
Daisuke Deguchi
Ichiro Ide
Hiroshi Murase
Wikipedia
News video
Video archive
Indexing
ISM English 0 0
Large-Scale Taxonomy Mapping for Restructuring and Integrating Wikipedia Simone P. Ponzetto
Roberto Navigli
Wikipedia
Knowledge acquisition
Taxonomy learning
Category disambiguation
Word sense disambiguation
IJCAI 2009: 21st International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Pasadena, California We present a knowledge-rich methodology for disambiguating Wikipedia categories with WordNet synsets and using this semantic information to restructure a taxonomy automatically generated from the Wikipedia system of categories. We evaluate against a manual gold standard and show that both category disambiguation and taxonomy restructuring perform with high accuracy. Besides, we assess these methods on automatically generated datasets and show that we are able to effectively enrich WordNet with a large number of instances from Wikipedia. Our approach produces an integrated resource, thus bringing together the fine-grained classification of instances in Wikipedia and a well-structured top-level taxonomy from WordNet. 0 0
Large-scale taxonomy mapping for restructuring and integrating wikipedia Simone Paolo Ponzetto
Roberto Navigli
IJCAI English 0 0
Learning about social accounting in the knowledge society: A wiki-Webquest CSEDU 2009 - Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Computer Supported Education English 0 0
Learning course content by creating a wiki TechTrends English 0 0
Learning in and with an open Wiki project: Wikiversity's potential in global capacity building T. Leinonen
T. Vaden
J. Suoranta
First Monday There is a chance that Wikiversity will become the Internet's free university just as Wikipedia is the free encyclopedia on the Internet. The building of an educational entity demands considering a number of philosophical and practical questions such as pedagogy and organization. In this paper we will address some of these, starting by introducing several earlier approaches and ideas related to wikis' potential for education. We continue by presenting three commonly used metaphors of learning: acquisition, participation and knowledge creation. Then we will present the main principles of two existing alternative educational approaches: free {aduH} education and free school movement. To test these educational approaches and practices on Wikiversity and increase our understanding of the possibilities of this initiative, in the spring of 2008 we implemented an experimental course in Wikiversity. We conclude with several recommendations essentially advocating for Wikiversity and the use of wikis in education. However, more than just presenting our opinions, as authors we aim to make an educated - traditionally and in the wiki way - contribution to the international discussion about the future of education for all in the digital era. 0 0
Learning in and with an open wiki project: Wikiversity's potential in global capacity building First Monday English 0 0
Learning in public: Information literacy and participatory media A. Forte Georgia Institute of Technology, Georgia English 0 0
Learning weights for translation candidates in Japanese-Chinese information retrieval Lin
Chu-Cheng
Yu Wang-Chun
Chih Yeh-Hao
Wei Tsai-Chi
Richard Tzong Tsai-Han
Expert Systems with Applications This paper describes our {Japanese-Chinese} information retrieval system. Our system takes the query-translation" approach. Our system employs both a more conventional bilingual {Japanese-Chinese} dictionary and Wikipedia for translating query terms. We propose that Wikipedia can be used as a good {NE} bilingual dictionary. By exploiting the nature of Japanese writing system we propose that query terms be processed differently based on the forms they are written in. We use an iterative method for weight-tuning and term disambiguation which is based on the {PageRank} algorithm. When evaluating on the {NTCIR-5} test set our system achieves as high as 0.2217 and 0.2276 in relax {MAP} (mean average precision) measurement of T-runs and D-runs. 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved." 0 0
Les sciences de l'information et des bibliothèques au prisme de Wikipédia Rémi Mathis
Olivier Morand
Bulletin des bibliothèques de France French Cet article s'intéresse à la représentation de la sphère bibliothéconomique sur Wikipédia. Après un rappel des tentatives d'organisation du travail sur les thématiques bibliothéconomiques, il dresse un état des lieux fondé sur les articles liés au portail « Sciences de l'information et des bibliothèques ». Il montre que le déficit d'image des sciences de l'information sur Wikipédia est en grande partie lié aux relations ambiguës entre la communauté wikipédienne et le monde des bibliothèques et plaide pour une meilleure appropriation de cette encyclopédie en ligne par les bibliothécaires. 2 0
Let Wiki Be More Powerful and Suitable for Enterprises with External Program Yang Zhao
Yong Zhang
Chunxiao Xing
Collaboration
Computational Capabilities
External Program
Monitoring Mechanism
Wiki
APWeb/WAIM English 0 0
Leveraging crowdsourcing heuristics to improve search in Wikipedia Yasser Ganjisaffar
Sara Javanmardi
Cristina Lopes
WikiSym English 0 0
Libraries and the mobile revolution: remediation=relevance M.L. Jacobs Reference Services Review Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to look at the big picture of where academic libraries fit into the mobile revolution. Design/methodology/approach - Using Jim Hahn's accompanying article, On the remediation of Wikipedia and the {iPod,} the author comments on what remediation means for the academic library culture as a whole. The reflections are based on observations of current trends in technology and the emergence of a mobile culture. A definition of this generation of library users is suggested - the {ING} (information now generation). Editorial in nature, the paper also discusses some new technologies and how they might be applicable to the technological growth of libraries. Findings - This reflection of current trends encourages librarians to look/listen, explore, apply, prevail when it comes to applying emerging technologies to the library world. Originality/value - The paper offers insights into how librarians can prepare themselves for the remediation revolution. 0 0
Lines of communication: Using a WIKI in a mathematics course PRIMUS English 0 0
Link-the-wiki: Performance evaluation based on frequent phrases Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) English 0 0
Linking Wikipedia Entries to Blog Feeds by Machine Learning Mariko Kawaba
Hiroyuki Nakasaki
Daisuke Yokomoto
Takehito Utsuro
Tomohiro Fukuhara
English 0 0
Lively Wiki a development environment for creating and sharing active web content Robert Krahn
Dan Ingalls
Robert Hirschfeld
Jens Lincke
Krzysztof Palacz
Wiki
Application Wikis
Development environment
End-user programming
Morphic
User innovation
Web application
WikiSym English 0 1
Location-based mobile wiki using NFC tag infrastructure Proceedings - 2009 1st International Workshop on Near Field Communication, NFC 2009 English 0 0
Managing the Platform: Higher Education and the Logic of Wikinomics David J Staley EDUCAUSE Review Wikipedia is an online free-content encyclopedia that anyone can edit and an efficient way to marshal the talents of many bright, capable people to produce knowledge. But the real significance of Wikipedia and similar Web 2.0 technologies is the way in which they organize people and activities, not simply the way in which they create and distribute information. Don Tapscott and Anthony Williams call this new organization of activities wikinomics." At its heart wikinomics involves motivated amateurs who voluntarily produce knowledge and information in a new form of social and managerial organization. Socially a wiki-ized system cannot exist without an agreement among the members of that system to behave in a certain fashion. Managerially wikinomics is built on the idea of the "platform." Wikipedia and other social networking sites provide a space or platform upon which all kinds of activities can flourish with the idea of a platform transcending any particular technology or application and referring to either virtual or physical worlds. Collaboration among many users upon such a platform often produces unplanned and emergent results--results frequently unattainable in a command-and-control management setting. In a wiki-ized setting leadership thus involves "managing the platform with leaders ensuring the vitality and stability of the platform rather than regulating the actions and activities of the people who use the platform. Wikinomics and Web 2.0 technologies represent as important a historical phenomenon as the birth of bureaucracy; indeed, people should refer to this moment in time as signaling a participatory turn in their culture. Yet whereas this participatory turn is rewriting the rules for many industries, most notably the software industry, people have yet to witness the full effects on the university--specifically on how they might organize, manage, and lead colleges and universities in the future. In this article, the author discusses how the logic of Web 2.0, the logic of commons-based peer production, and the logic of platform management might transform the idea of the university and the very activities--teaching and learning, research, and publishing--that lie at the heart of this enterprise. {(Contains} 16 notes.) 0 0
Map Projections in Wikipedia. FranÄ?ula
Nedjeljko
Cartography \& Geoinformation A discussion on an article about map projection, published in wikipedia, is presented. The article presents a definition of a map projection. It tackles various issues concerning map projections including the construction of a map projection, selection of a model for the shape of the Earth, and an analysis of pseudocylindrical and azimuthal projections. The author claims that the article provides a reliable source of information on map projections. 0 0
Measuring Self-Focus Bias in Community-Maintained Knowledge Repositories Brent Hecht
Darren Gergle
International Conference on Communities and Technologies English Self-focus is a novel way of understanding a type of bias in community-maintained Web 2.0 graph structures. It goes beyond previous measures of topical coverage bias by encapsulating both node- and edge-hosted biases in a single holistic measure of an entire community-maintained graph. We outline two methods to quantify self-focus, one of which is very computationally inexpensive, and present empirical evidence for the existence of self-focus using a "hyperlingual" approach that examines 15 different language editions of Wikipedia. We suggest applications of our methods and discuss the risks of ignoring self-focus bias in technological applications. 0 0
Measuring Semantic Similarity between Words Using Wikipedia Lu Zhiqiang
Shao Werimin
Yu Zhenhua
Semantic similarity
Wikipedia
TF-IDF
Cosine similarity
WISM English 0 0
Measuring Wikipedia: a hands-on tutorial Luca de Alfaro
Felipe Ortega
WikiTrust
WikiXRay
Wikipedia
Data mining
Empirical research
Measurements
WikiSym English 0 0
Measuring the Wikisphere Jeff C. Stuckman
James Purtilo
WikiSym Due to the inherent difficulty in obtaining experimental data from wikis, past quantitative wiki research has largely been focused on Wikipedia, limiting the degree that it can be generalized. We developed WikiCrawler, a tool that automatically downloads and analyzes wikis, and studied 151 popular wikis running Mediawiki (none of them Wikipedias). We found that our studied wikis displayed signs of collaborative authorship, validating them as objects of study. We also discovered that, as in Wikipedia, the relative contribution levels of users in the studied wikis were highly unequal, with a small number of users contributing a disproportionate amount of work. In addition, power-law distributions were successfully fitted to the contribution levels of most of the studied wikis, and the parameters of the fitted distributions largely predicted the high inequality that was found. Along with demonstrating our methodology of analyzing wikis from diverse sources, the discovered similarities between wikis suggest that most wikis accumulate edits through a similar underlying mechanism, which could motivate a model of user activity that is applicable to wikis in general. 9 0
Medications in Wikipedia. Comparison of reliability Francine Fiore Perspective Infirmière: Revue Officielle De l'Ordre Des Infirmières Et Infirmiers Du Québec 0 0
Method of joint construction of standards in garment industry based on Wiki Zhejiang Daxue Xuebao(Gongxue Ban)/Journal of Zhejiang University (Engineering Science) English 0 0
Methodological and Theoretical challenges and potentials of studying participation in online communities for the building of digital commons: Wikipedia and the Social Forums. Mayo Fuster Morell Wikipedia
Social Forums
Online participation
Participation as an eco-system
Proceedings conference Shaping Europe in a Globalized World: Protest Movements and the Rise of a Transnational Civil Society. Zurich, Switzerland. (pp. 23–26). Online creation communities (OCCs) constitute forms of collective action based on virtual environments that result in the provision of a public good. The tendency to a strong inequality regarding the distribution of content contribution is characteristic of most OCCs. Several profiles of participation are distinguished: A very low percentage of committed participants who usually account for a disproportionately large amount of the content; a low percentage of participants that make very small contributions; and, finally, a largest presence of individuals that do not participate. This is known as 90/9/1 law. In order to better understand the 90/9/1 law I looked to the organizational and democratic logic of the participation in OCCs. Participation in OCCs seems to loose the dichotomist character based on the criteria of partecipating or not participating. Instead, a conception of participation as an eco-system seems better characterising participation in OCCs. In synthesis, participation is understood as an eco-system in six senses. 1) What is important is that the system is open to participation, but it is not expected that everybody participate and contribute equally; 2) Participation has multiple forms and degrees which are integrated: a critical mass of active developers is essential to initiate the project and maintain the content; weak cooperation enriches the system and facilitates reaching larger fields of information resources; and lurker or non-participants provide value as audience or though unintended participation that improve the system; 3) Participation is decentralized and asynchronous; 4) Participation is in public; 5) Participation is autonomous in the sense that each person decides which level of commitment they want to adopt and on what aspects they want to contribute. 6) Participation is volunteering. Participation is not only deliberation but implementation. The analysis is developed over the case studies of a platform provided by the European Social Forum and Wikipedia and a large-N web analysis. To conclude I reflect on methodological and theoretical challenges and potentials of studying online communities for the building of digital commons. 0 0
Mining Concepts from Wikipedia for Ontology Construction Gaoying Cui
Qin Lu
Wenjie Li
Yirong Chen
WI-IAT English An ontology is a structured knowledgebase of concepts organized by relations among them. But concepts are usually mixed with their instances in the corpora for knowledge extraction. Concepts and their corresponding instances share similar features and are difficult to distinguish. In this paper, a novel approach is proposed to comprehensively obtain concepts with the help of definition sentences and Category Labels in Wikipedia pages. N-gram statistics and other NLP knowledge are used to help extracting appropriate concepts. The proposed method identified nearly 50,000 concepts from about 700,000 Wiki pages. The precision reaching 78.5% makes it an effective approach to mine concepts from Wikipedia for ontology construction. 0 0
Mining Structured Information from Unstructured Texts using Wikipedia-based Semantic Analysis Amir Hossein Jadidinejad Islamic Azad University Persian 0 0
Mining meaning from Wikipedia Olena Medelyan
David N. Milne
Catherine Legg
Ian H. Witten
Information extraction
Information retrieval
Natural Language Processing
Ontology
Semantic web
Text mining
Wikipedia
Data mining
Int. J. Hum.-Comput. Stud.
International Journal of Human Computer Studies
English Wikipedia is a goldmine of information; not just for its many readers, but also for the growing community of researchers who recognize it as a resource of exceptional scale and utility. It represents a vast investment of manual effort and judgment: a huge, constantly evolving tapestry of concepts and relations that is being applied to a host of tasks. This article provides a comprehensive description of this work. It focuses on research that extracts and makes use of the concepts, relations, facts and descriptions found in Wikipedia, and organizes the work into four broad categories: applying Wikipedia to natural language processing; using it to facilitate information retrieval and information extraction; and as a resource for ontology building. The article addresses how Wikipedia is being used as is, how it is being improved and adapted, and how it is being combined with other structures to create entirely new resources. We identify the research groups and individuals involved, and how their work has developed in the last few years. We provide a comprehensive list of the open-source software they have produced. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 0 4
Mining multilingual topics from Wikipedia Xiaochuan Ni
Jian T. Sun
Jian Hu
Zheng Chen
English In this paper, we try to leverage a large-scale and multilingual knowledge base, Wikipedia, to help effectively analyze and organize Web information written in different languages. Based on the observation that one Wikipedia concept may be described by articles in different languages, we adapt existing topic modeling algorithm for mining multilingual topics from this knowledge base. The extracted 'universal' topics have multiple types of representations, with each type corresponding to one language. Accordingly, new documents of different languages can be represented in a space using a group of universal topics, which makes various multilingual Web applications feasible. 0 0
MoKi: The Enterprise Modelling Wiki Chiara Ghidini
Barbara Kump
Stefanie Lindstaedt
Nahid Mahbub
Viktoria Pammer
Marco Rospocher
Luciano Serafini
English Enterprise modelling focuses on the construction of a structured description, the so-called enterprise model, which represents aspects relevant to the activity of an enterprise. Although it has become clearer recently that enterprise modelling is a collaborative activity, involving a large number of people, most of the enterprise modelling tools still only support very limited degrees of collaboration. Within this contribution we describe a tool for enterprise modelling, called MoKi (MOdelling wiKI), which supports agile collaboration between all different actors involved in the enterprise modelling activities. MoKi is based on a Semantic Wiki and enables actors with different expertise to develop an enterprise model not only using structural (formal) descriptions but also adopting more informal and semi-formal descriptions of knowledge. 0 0
Mobile information retrieval with search results clustering: Prototypes and evaluations Claudio Carpineto
Stefano Mizzaro
Giovanni Romano
Matteo Snidero
Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology Web searches from mobile devices such as {PDAs} and cell phones are becoming increasingly popular. However, the traditional list-based search interface paradigm does not scale well to mobile devices due to their inherent limitations. In this article, we invthe application of search results clustering, used with some success for desktop computer searches, to the mobile scenario. Building on {CREDO} {(Conceptual} Reorganization of Documents), a Web clustering engine based on concept lattices, we present imobile versions Credino and {SmartCREDO} , for {PDAs} and cell phones, respectively. Next, we evaluate the retrieval performance of the three prototype systems. We measure the effectiveness of their clustered results compared to a ranked list of results on a retrieval task, by means of the device-independent notion of subtopic reach time with a reusable test collection built from Wikipedia ambiguous entries. Then, we make a crosscomparison of methods (i.e., clustering and ranked list) and dev(i.e., desktop, {PDA,} and cell phone), using an interactive information-finding task performed by external participants. The main finding is that clustering engines are a viable complementary approach to plain search engines both for desktop and mobilsearches especially, but not only, for multitopic informational queries. 0 0
Motivational voluntary knowledge sharing among users in the open source encyclopedia; case study (the Arabic Wikipedia) Mohammed N M Abu-Shaaban Edinburgh Napier University English This research aims to examine the motives behind participation in the Arabic version of Wikipedia. Building on previous research, it argues that there are four main motivational factors: egoism, altruism, principalism and collectivism. Data is collected to examine the importance of each factor. Data collection occurs in two stages; first, Wikipedia content is researched and examined for statements that denote motivational behaviour and second, interviews are carried out with a sample of Arabic Wikipedians to discuss the results of the first stage and reach more definitive conclusions. The research also finds a correlation between the various contents of the articles (religious, political or country-related) and the motivational factor behind contributing users in a given article. 0 0
Named Entity Recognition in Wikipedia Dominic Balasuriya
Nicky Ringland
Joel Nothman
Tara Murphy
James R. Curran
English 0 0
Named entity disambiguation by leveraging Wikipedia semantic knowledge Xianpei Han
Jun Zhao
English Name ambiguity problem has raised an urgent demand for efficient, high-quality named entity disambiguation methods. The key problem of named entity disambiguation is to measure the similarity between occurrences of names. The traditional methods measure the similarity using the bag of words (BOW) model. The BOW, however, ignores all the semantic relations such as social relatedness between named entities, associative relatedness between concepts, polysemy and synonymy between key terms. So the BOW cannot reflect the actual similarity. Some research has investigated social networks as background knowledge for disambiguation. Social networks, however, can only capture the social relatedness between named entities, and often suffer the limited coverage problem. To overcome the previous methods' deficiencies, this paper proposes to use Wikipedia as the background knowledge for disambiguation, which surpasses other knowledge bases by the coverage of concepts, rich semantic information and up-to-date content. By leveraging Wikipedia's semantic knowledge like social relatedness between named entities and associative relatedness between concepts, we can measure the similarity between occurrences of names more accurately. In particular, we construct a large-scale semantic network from Wikipedia, in order that the semantic knowledge can be used efficiently and effectively. Based on the constructed semantic network, a novel similarity measure is proposed to leverage Wikipedia semantic knowledge for disambiguation. The proposed method has been tested on the standard WePS data sets. Empirical results show that the disambiguation performance of our method gets 10.7% improvement over the traditional BOW based methods and 16.7% improvement over the traditional social network based methods. 0 0
Network analysis of collaboration structure in Wikipedia Ulrik Brandes
Patrick Kenis
Jürgen Lerner
Denise van Raaij
English In this paper we give models and algorithms to describe and analyze the collaboration among authors of Wikipedia from a network analytical perspective. The edit network encodes who interacts how with whom when editing an article; it significantly extends previous network models that code author communities in Wikipedia. Several characteristics summarizing some aspects of the organization process and allowing the analyst to identify certain types of authors can be obtained from the edit network. Moreover, we propose several indicators characterizing the global network structure and methods to visualize edit networks. It is shown that the structural network indicators are correlated with quality labels of the associated Wikipedia articles. 0 4
New technologies and terminological pressure in lesser-used languages : The Breton Wikipedia, from terminology consumer to potential terminology provider Robert NealBaxter Language problems \& language planning Taking the impact of the Wikipedia on the Breton language as a case in point, whilst highlighting the huge potential benefits that new technologies have to offer to economically less viable languages as a whole, this article discusses the way internet-based systems can have an impact on the terminological pressure exerted on such languages in many specialised areas. The article goes on to analyse possible conflict resolution mechanisms for competing terminological strategies and the relative merits and shortcomings of each. While centred on the specific case of a European minority" or "lesser used" language the article shows the extent to which the discussion and findings can also be relevant to the way other equally economically challenged languages around the globe can evolve and develop unfettered thanks to the use of free-access virtual resources such as Wikipedia." 0 0
Nos bastidores da wikipédia lusófona: percalços e conquistas de um projeto de escrita coletiva online Telma Sueli
Pinto Johnson
Wikipedia
Coletiva online
Redes sociais online
Interações sociais
Wikipédia Lusófona
UFMG Portuguese Este estudo aborda os fatores que explicam o surgimento e determinam a sustentação do fenômeno da escrita coletiva voluntária na rede social que opera nos bastidores da enciclopédia online Wikipédia Lusófona, com vistas a contribuir com o campo de pesquisa das redes sociais mediadas por computador compreendidas aqui como redes de comunicação. O trabalho, de natureza qualitativa, resgatou e atualizou contribuições de conceitos clássicos da sociologia, da psicologia social e da antropologia para a compreensão dos processos de interação social. A perspectiva pragmática de que os indivíduos são socialmente constituídos e que o contexto social dentro do qual isso ocorre é um complexo de práticas situadas nos levou a fazer certas opções teóricas e metodológicas. Uma das opções foi adotar uma via alternativa aos paradigmas do individualismo metodológico e do holismo social, combinando conceitos teóricos do interacionismo simbólico e do sistema de dádiva moderno; outra opção foi criar um modelo de etnografia virtual condizente com os princípios metodológicos dapesquisa naturalística, para traçar uma tipologia dos processos de interação social na Wikipédia Lusófona. A pesquisa empírica, realizada no período de 2006 a 2008, resultou em dois corpus de dados coletados via a triangulação de métodos. O primeiro corpus resultou daobservação sistemática, coleta de dados e análise da forma de organização social e dos processos de interação social nas páginas da Wikipédia Lusófona. Esse primeiro corpus possibilitou a fase posterior da pesquisa, que envolveu a realização de entrevistas individuais por e-mail com a participação de 26 wikipedistas brasileiros e portugueses registrados no projeto. A análise dos resultados, à luz dos referenciais teóricos, gerou uma tipologia da complexidade das formas sociais que essa rede dinâmica, mutável e em constante devir manifesta. Os processos de interação social mostram que a cooperação assume uma forma sociológica de primeira ordem, ocorrendo no registro da incondicionalidade do vínculo associativo, e caracterizada como uma dádiva contemporânea altruística a estranhos, mediada por computador. A colaboração se apresenta como uma forma sociológica de segunda ordem, subseqüente e mais complexa, que transcende as características da cooperação e revela a presença da dádiva agonística em formas de interação como o conflito, a competição e a disputa. As interações sob a forma de colaboração ocorrem no registro da condicionalidade, dos embates, das negociações, que tanto resultam na coesão da rede social como também em afastamentos temporários ou definitivos do projeto.
This study broaches the factors that explain the appearance and determine the sustentation of the phenomenon of the voluntary collective writing on the social network that operates behind the scenes of the encyclopedia online Wikipedia Lusofona, with a vision to contribute to the field of research of the social networks mediated by computer understood here as communication networks. The work, from a qualitative perspective, recovered and updated contributions of classic concepts of sociology, social psychology and anthropology for the understanding of the processes of social interaction. The pragmatic perspective that individuals are socially constituted and that the social context within that of which it occurs is a complex of situated practices led us to choose certain theoretical and methodological options. One of the options was to adopt an alternative way to the paradigms of methodological individualism and social wholism, combining theoretical concepts of symbolic interactionism and the system of modern gift; another option was to create a model of suitable virtual ethnography with the methodological principles of naturalistic research, to trace a typology of the processes of social interaction in Wikipedia Lusofona. The empirical research, carried out during the period of 2006 to 2008, resulted in two bodies of data collected by way of a triangulation of methods. The first body resulted from the systematic observation, collection of data and analysis of the form of social organization and theprocesses of social interaction on the pages of Wikipedia Lusofona. This first body made possible the posterior phase of the research, which involved the execution of individual interviews by email with the participation of 26 registered Brazilian and Portuguese wikipedistas on the project. The analysis of the results, under the light of the theoreticalreferences, generated a typology of the complexity of the social forms that this dynamic, in constant transformation and mutable network manifests. The processes of social interaction show that cooperation assumes a sociological form of the first order, occurring in the register of unconditionality of the associative bond, and characterized as an altruistic contemporary gift to strangers, mediated by computer. The collaboration presents itself as a sociological form of the second order, subsequent and more complex, that transcends the characteristics of cooperation and reveals the presence of agonistic gift in forms of interaction like conflict, competition and dispute. The interactions under the form of collaboration occur in the register of conditionality, clashes, negotiations, that often result in the cohesion of the social network as well as in temporary or definitive withdrawals from the project.
0 0
Not an authority. R. Kitchen British Dental Journal A letter to the editor is presented in response to the article {Wikipedia} use by E. Shawkat in the 2009 issue. 0 0
On Trusting WIKIPEDIA P. D. Magnus Episteme, , number 1, Summarized in the Wikipedia Signpost Given the fact that many people use Wikipedia, we should ask: Can we trust it? The empirical evidence suggests that Wikipedia articles are sometimes quite good but that they vary a great deal. As such, it is wrong to ask for a monolithic verdict on Wikipedia. Interacting with Wikipedia involves assessing where it is likely to be reliable and where not. I identify five strategies that we use to assess claims from other sources and argue that, to a greater of lesser degree, Wikipedia frustrates all of them. Interacting responsibly with something like Wikipedia requires new epistemic methods and strategies. 0 0
On the Analysis of Contributions from Privileged Users in Virtual Open Communities Felipe Ortega
Daniel Izquierdo-Cortazar
Jesús M. González-Barahona
Gregorio Robles
Libre software
Wikipedia
HICSS English Collaborative projects built around virtual communities on the Internet have gained momentum over the last decade. Nevertheless, their rapid growth rate rises some questions: which is the most effective approach to manage and organize their content creation process? Can these communities scale, controlling their projects as their size continues to grow over time? To answer these questions, we undertake a quantitative analysis of privileged users in FLOSS development projects and in Wikipedia. From our results, we conclude that the inequality level of user contributions in both types of initiatives is remarkably distinct, even though both communities present almost identical patterns regarding the number of distinct contributors per file (in FLOSS projects) or per article (in Wikipedia). As a result, totally open projects like Wikipedia can effectively deal with faster growing rates, while FLOSS projects may be affected by bottlenecks on committers who play critical roles. 0 0
On the Origin of Eukaryotes Carl Zimmer Science 0 0
On the Origin of Sexual Reproduction Carl Zimmer Science 0 0
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